Monday, July 15, 2024

What Are Some Depressive Disorders

Alcohol Tobacco And Other Drugs

Depression and major depressive disorder | Behavior | MCAT | Khan Academy

The misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and prescription medications affect the health and well-being of millions of Americans. SAMHSAs 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that approximately 19.3 million people aged 18 or older had a substance use disorder in the past year.

How Is Depression Syndrome Treated

Depression can be serious, but its also treatable. Treatment for depression includes:

  • Self-help: Regular exercise, getting enough sleep, and spending time with people you care about can improve depression symptoms.
  • Counseling: Counseling or psychotherapy is talking with a mental health professional. Your counselor helps you address your problems and develop coping skills. Sometimes brief therapy is all you need. Other people continue therapy longer.
  • Alternative medicine: People with mild depression or ongoing symptoms can improve their well-being with complementary therapy. Therapy may include massage, acupuncture, hypnosis and biofeedback.
  • Medication: Prescription medicine called antidepressants can help change brain chemistry that causes depression. Antidepressants can take a few weeks to have an effect. Some antidepressants have side effects, which often improve with time. If they dont, talk to your provider. A different medications may work better for you.
  • Brain stimulation therapy: Brain stimulation therapy can help people who have severe depression or depression with psychosis. Types of brain stimulation therapy include electroconvulsive therapy , transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation .

How Are Mood Disorders Treated

Mood disorders can often be treated with success. Treatment may include:

  • Antidepressant and mood stabilizing medicinesespecially when combined with psychotherapy have shown to work very well in the treatment of depression

  • Psychotherapymost often cognitive-behavioral and/or interpersonal therapy. This therapy is focused on changing the persons distorted views of himself or herself and the environment around him or her. It also helps to improve interpersonal relationship skills, and identifying stressors in the environment and how to avoid them

  • Other therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial stimulation

Families play a vital supportive role in any treatment process.

When correctly diagnosed and treated, people with mood disorders can live, stable, productive, healthy lives.

Also Check: How To Make Yourself Do Something When You Are Depressed

How Is Major Depression Diagnosed

A health professional such as your primary care doctor or a psychiatrist will perform a thorough medical evaluation. You might receive a screening for depression at a regular doctorââ¬â¢s visit. The professional will ask about your personal and family psychiatric history and ask you questions that screen for the symptoms of major depression.

There is no blood test, X-ray, or other laboratory test that can be used to diagnose major depression. However, your doctor may run blood tests to help detect any other medical problems that have symptoms similar to those of depression. For example, hypothyroidism can cause some of the same symptoms as depression, as can alcohol or drug use and abuse, some medications, and stroke.

Symptoms Of Major Depressive Disorder

Depression Signs and Symptom. Infographic for People Stock Vector ...

These are some of the symptoms of major depressive disorder you may experience:

  • Feeling sad or low
  • Having difficulty paying attention, remembering, or making decisions
  • Having difficulty sleeping, waking up too early, or oversleeping
  • Experiencing unplanned changes in eating habits and weight
  • Experiencing headaches, cramps, digestive issues, or other aches and pains that dont have a clear cause and dont get better with treatment
  • Talking about death, having thoughts of suicide, or attempting self-harm

Everyone experiences depression differently. While some people may have a few symptoms, others may have many. The frequency, severity, and duration of the symptoms can also vary from person to person.

Recommended Reading: How To Know If You Are Diagnosed With Depression

What Is The Most Common Symptom Of Depression

The most widely reported symptom of depression is low mood and a sense of hopelessness about life and one’s own prospects. Many people can relate to such sentiments and have experienced them at some point. But for a person who is experiencing depression, this outlook is persistent and does not remit. If someone reports that they have felt this way for two weeks or more, they should be encouraged to seek professional help.

What Are The Different Types Of Mood Disorders

These are the most common types of mood disorders:

  • Major depression. Having less interest in usual activities, feeling sad or hopeless, and other symptoms for at least 2 weeks may indicate depression.

  • Dysthymia. This is a chronic, low-grade, depressed, or irritable mood that lasts for at least 2 years.

  • Bipolar disorder. This is a condition in which a person has periods of depression alternating with periods of mania or elevated mood.

  • Mood disorder related to another health condition. Many medical illnesses can trigger symptoms of depression.

  • Substance-induced mood disorder. Symptoms of depression that are due to the effects of medicine, drug abuse, alcoholism, exposure to toxins, or other forms of treatment.

Read Also: What Are Ways To Help Depression

Changes In Appetite And Weight

Weight and appetite can fluctuate for people with depression. This experience may be different for each person. Some people will have an increased appetite and gain weight, while others wont be hungry and will lose weight.

One indication of whether dietary changes are related to depression is if theyre intentional or not. If theyre not, it may mean that theyre caused by depression.

People who die by suicide usually show symptoms first. Often people will talk about it or make a first attempt before succeeding in ending their life. If you think someone is at immediate risk of self-harm or hurting another person:

  • Stay with the person until help arrives.
  • Remove any guns, knives, medications, or other things that may cause harm.
  • Listen, but dont judge, argue, threaten, or yell.

If you think someone is considering suicide, get help from a crisis or suicide prevention hotline. Try the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255.

Everyone Experiences Depression Differently

What is the difference between Persistent Depressive Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder?

Its important to note that everyone experiences mental health conditions such as major depressive disorder differently. While some people may have many symptoms of depression, others may have only a few. The frequency, duration, and severity of the symptoms can also vary from person to person.

The symptoms of major depressive disorder can also vary depending on a persons age. Listed below are some symptoms people may experience, depending on their age:

Read Also: What To Do When You Feel Depressed And Unmotivated

Read Also: How To Cope With Anxiety Depression

Are There Warning Signs Of Suicide With Depression

Depression carries a high risk of suicide. Suicidal thoughts or intentions are serious. Warning signs include:

  • A sudden switch from sadness to extreme calmness, or appearing to be happy
  • Always talking or thinking about death
  • Clinical depression that gets worse
  • Taking risks that could lead to death, such as driving through red lights
  • Making comments about being hopeless, helpless, or worthless
  • Putting affairs in order, like tying up loose ends or changing a will
  • Saying things like It would be better if I werent here or I want out
  • Talking about suicide
  • Visiting or calling close friends and loved ones

If you or someone you know shows any of the above warning signs, call your local suicide hotline, contact a mental health professional right away, or go to the emergency room.

Mental Health Conditions: Depression And Anxiety

Depression is more than just feeling down or having a bad day. When a sad mood lasts for a long time and interferes with normal, everyday functioning, you may be depressed. Symptoms of depression include:1

  • Feeling sad or anxious often or all the time
  • Not wanting to do activities that used to be fun
  • Feeling irritable easily frustrated or restless
  • Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep
  • Waking up too early or sleeping too much
  • Eating more or less than usual or having no appetite
  • Experiencing aches, pains, headaches, or stomach problems that do not improve with treatment
  • Having trouble concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions
  • Feeling tired even after sleeping well
  • Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless
  • Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself

The following information is not intended to provide a medical diagnosis of major depression and cannot take the place of seeing a mental health professional. If you think you are depressed talk with your doctor or a mental health professional immediately. This is especially important if your symptoms are getting worse or affecting your daily activities.

The exact cause of depression is unknown. It may be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.2 Everyone is different but the following factors may increase a persons chances of becoming depressed:1

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Are Depressive Symptoms Different For Different People

Not everyone experiences every symptom, nor do people experience the same symptoms to the same degree. Symptoms may vary not only between individuals but over time in the same individual. Some people have observable behavioral changes, including disrupted sleep and appetite changes. Others have no physical symptoms but their outlook on life grows notably more pessimistic.

How Do I Know Which Type I Have

What is Persistent Depressive Disorder?

If you think you might have any type of depression, its important to follow up with a doctor. All depression types discussed in this article are treatable, though it might take some time to find the right treatment for you.

If youve had a previous episode of depression and think it may be happening again, see a therapist or another mental health professional right away.

If youve never had depression before, start with a primary care physician. Some symptoms of depression can be related to an underlying physical condition that should be addressed.

Try to give your doctor as much information about your symptoms as you can. If possible, mention:

  • when you first noticed the symptoms
  • how theyve affected your daily life
  • any other mental health conditions you have
  • any information about a history of mental illness in your family
  • all prescription and over-the-counter medications you take, including supplements and herbs

It might feel uncomfortable, but try to tell your doctor everything. This will help them give you a more accurate diagnosis and refer you to the right type of mental health professional.

Worried about the cost of mental health services? Here are five ways to access therapy for every budget.

Recommended Reading: How To Help Sibling With Depression

Major Depression And Genetics

How common is major depression? At least 10% of people in the U.S. will experience major depressive disorder at some point in their lives. Two times as many women as men experience major depression.

How do we know that genes play a role in causing depression? Scientists look at patterns of illness in families to estimate their heritability, or roughly what percentage of their cause is due to genes. To do this we find people with the disease who have a twin, and then find out whether the twin is also ill. Identical twins share 100% of their genes, while non-identical twins share 50% of their genes. If genes are part of the cause, we expect a patients identical twin to have a much higher risk of disease than a patients non-identical twin. That is the case for major depression. Heritability is probably 40-50%, and might be higher for severe depression.

This could mean that in most cases of depression, around 50% of the cause is genetic, and around 50% is unrelated to genes . Or it could mean that in some cases, the tendency to become depressed is almost completely genetic, and in other cases it is not really genetic at all. We dont know the answer yet.

We can also look at adoption studies, to see whether an adopted persons risk of depression is greater if a biological parent had depression. This also seems to be the case.

However, many people who develop major depression did not have this type of personality before their depression started.

Statistical Methods And Measurement Caveats

Diagnostic Assessment:

Population:

  • The entirety of NSDUH respondents for the major depressive episode estimates is the civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 12-17 and 18 years old or older residing within the United States.
  • The survey covers residents of households and persons in non-institutional group quarters .
  • The survey does not cover persons who, for the entire year, had no fixed address were on active military duty or who resided in institutional group quarters .
  • Some adults and adolescents in these excluded categories may have had a major depressive episode in the past year, but they are not accounted for in the NSDUH major depressive episode estimates.
  • Sex was recorded by the interviewer.

Interview Response and Completion:

  • In 2020, 39.6% of the selected NSDUH sample did not complete the interview.
  • Reasons for non-response to interviewing include: refusal to participate respondent unavailable or no one at home and other reasons such as physical/mental incompetence or language barriers .
  • Adults and adolescents with major depressive episode may disproportionately fall into these non-response categories. While NSDUH weighting includes non-response adjustments to reduce bias, these adjustments may not fully account for differential non-response by mental illness status.

Data Suppression:

Background on the 2020 NSDUH and the COVID-19 Pandemic:

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When To Seek Help

If you are experiencing any symptoms of depression or mood changes, asking for help is important. Many people are concerned about how other people view their mental health and may avoid treatment as a result, but its important to get the help you need. Depression and mood illness are common, and asking for help from trained health professionals has many benefits. They can help you build coping skills to handle your lifes stress better and help you manage the symptoms. Talk with your healthcare team for support and to better cope with problems affecting your mood.

Causes Of Major Depressive Disorder

What is Major Depressive Disorder?

Depression is caused by an imbalance of chemicals, known as neurotransmitters, in the brain.

Certain genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors can increase the chances of someone developing depression however, its important to remember that anyone can develop depression.

The potential causes and risk factors for depression include:

Recommended Reading: How To Tell People You Are Depressed

Depressive Episodes With Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a different type of mood disorder that is characterized by a cycle of depressive episodes and manic episodes. Manic episodes are essentially the opposite of depression, during which a person feels euphoric, energized, and sleeps little and acts recklessly. The depressive episodes that precede or follow manic episodes can feel a lot like an episode of major depression.

Certain symptoms are more common in episodes of bipolar depression than major depression. Someone going through bipolar depression is more likely to feel irritable and guilty, to be restless and agitated, and to have unpredictable mood swings. Bipolar depression is also more likely to cause psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. Another important difference is that antidepressants may not help treat someone with bipolar disorder. In fact, these drugs may make periods of mania more likely. Instead, bipolar disorder is more often treated with mood stabilizing drugs.

  • National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, 800-273-8255

To find a doctor or schedule an appointment, visit Steward DoctorFinder.

*Source: National Institutes of Mental Health, www.nimh.nih.gov*Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

What Is Major Depressive Disorder

Sadness is a natural part of the human experience. People may feel sad or depressed when a loved one passes away or when theyre going through a life challenge, such as a divorce or serious illness.

These feelings are usually short-lived. When someone experiences persistent and intense feelings of sadness for extended periods, then they may have a mood disorder such as major depressive disorder .

MDD, also referred to as clinical depression, is a significant medical condition that can affect many areas of your life. It impacts mood and behavior as well as various physical functions, such as appetite and sleep.

MDD is one of the most common mental health conditions in the United States. Data suggests that more than 7.8 percent of U.S. adults experienced a major depressive episode in 2019.

Some people with MDD never seek treatment. However, most people with the disorder can learn to cope and function with treatment. Medications, psychotherapy, and other methods can effectively treat people with MDD and help them manage their symptoms.

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Ongoing Mood Cognitive Changes May Require Professional Help

Depression is not only hard to endure, it is also a risk factor for heart disease and dementia. “Depressive symptoms can occur in adults for many reasons. If you are experiencing mood or cognitive changes that last for more than a few weeks, it’s a good idea to bring this up with your doctor or consult a mental health specialist to help sort out possible causes,” says Dr. Nancy Donovan, an instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School.The four most common types of depression are major depression, persistent depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.

Major depression. The classic depression type, major depression is a state where a dark mood is all-consuming and one loses interest in activities, even ones that are usually pleasurable. Symptoms of this type of depression include trouble sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy, and feeling worthless. Thoughts of death or suicide may occur. It is usually treated with psychotherapy and medication. For some people with severe depression that isn’t alleviated with psychotherapy or antidepressant medications, electroconvulsive therapy may be effective.

Are There Different Types Of Depression

Understand Types Of Depression Now &  Get Healed!

If you are given a diagnosis of depression, you might be told that you have mild, moderate or severe depression. This describes what sort of impact your symptoms are having on you currently, and what sort of treatment you’re likely to be offered. You might move between mild, moderate and severe depression during one episode of depression or across different episodes.

There are also some specific types of depression:

  • Seasonal affective disorder depression that occurs at a particular time of year, or during a particular season. See our page on SAD for more information.
  • Dysthymia continuous mild depression that lasts for two years or more. Also called persistent depressive disorder or chronic depression.
  • Prenatal depression depression that occurs during pregnancy. This is sometimes also called antenatal depression.
  • Postnatal depression depression that occurs in the first year after giving birth.

See our page on postnatal depression and perinatal mental health for more information. The PANDAS Foundation also has information and support for anyone experiencing prenatal or postnatal depression.

Is premenstrual dysphoric disorder a type of depression?

PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome . Many women experience PMS, but for some women their symptoms are severe enough to seriously impact their daily life. This is when you might receive a diagnosis of PMDD.

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