Friday, June 14, 2024

Are Depression And Anxiety Mental Illnesses

General Description Of The Included Studies

Mental Health Matters: Depression and Anxiety in Older Adults

A total of 16 studies were included in this review, which consists of a total of 262,656 participants . The adult population was considered in all included studies, except one . In most studies, half of the participants were females however, the lowest and highest female participants were seen in Alqahtani et al. and Hawash et al. . Only five studies reported mean age, where participants are young adults in the rest of the studies. All of the studies were cross-sectional and conducted using an online data collection approach . Three studies did not report any sampling methods . The study with the largest sample was considered a non-proportional quota sampling strategy , where it is either convenient or snowball in the rest of the studies. However, the description of the recruited articles can be found in Table .

How Is Depression Treated

The first step to getting treatment is to see your GP. If your GP thinks you have depression, they will talk to you about the treatments they can offer.

What are talking therapies?

Talking therapy is a general term to describe any psychological therapy that involves talking. You may also hear the terms counselling or psychotherapy used to describe talking therapy.

Therapy should offer you a safe, confidential place to talk about your life and anything confusing, painful or uncomfortable. It allows you to talk with someone who is trained to listen attentively and to help you improve things.

Talking therapy often takes place face to face. But you may also be able to have therapy over the phone, by video call or online. There are different types of talking therapy that you might be offered. These include:

  • cognitive-behavioural therapy,
  • mindfulness based therapy, and
  • counselling.

The type of therapy you are offered will depend on the cause of your symptoms and their severity. Therapies may also have different levels based on how long or intense the treatment is.

Ask your GP about therapy if you think it might help. Some of these therapies will be available in your area. Some areas offer a self-referral option for NHS talking therapies. Please refer to your local Improving Access to Psychological Therapies service to find out about this option.

You may also be able to access therapy privately or through your employer in an Employee Assistance Programme.

How can exercise help?

Disease Burden Of Mental Health And Substance Use Disorders

Health impacts are often measured in terms of total numbers of deaths, but a focus on mortality means that the burden of mental health disorders can be underestimated.2 Measuring the health impact by mortality alone fails to capture the impact that mental health disorders have on an individuals wellbeing. The disease burden measured in Disability-Adjusted Life Years considers not only the mortality associated with a disorder, but also years lived with disability or health burden. The map shows DALYs as a share of total disease burden mental and substance use disorders account for around 5 percent of global disease burden in 2017, but this reaches up to 10 percent in several countries. These disorders have the highest contribution to overall health burden in Australia, Saudi Arabia and Iran.

In 2017, an estimated 264 million people in the world experienced depression. A breakdown of the number of people with depression by world region can be seen here and a country by country view on a world map is here.In all countries the median estimate for the prevalence of depression is higher for women than for men.

DALYs from depression

The chart found here shows the health burden of depression as measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years per 100,000. A time-series perspective on DALYs by age is here.

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When To Talk To Your Doctor About Depression & Anxiety Symptoms

You may be unsure about whether the symptoms that youre experiencing are normal and temporary or if you should talk to your doctor about them. Most people have occasional feelings of anxiety or of sadness. This can result from a recent event in your life, such as a relationship breakup or problems at work. Normal adjustment periods can take up to six months without any professional help. There is no need to wait that long. Its best to ask your doctor if youre not sure whether you need help sooner.

You should talk to your doctor about any symptoms you have, whether physical or mental. These symptoms may include:

  • Any physical problems, such as muscle aches or digestive trouble
  • Changes in your sleep habits
  • Weight loss or weight gain related to a change in appetite
  • Anxiety about more than one area of your life, such as work & family or health & finances
  • Changed behavior in daily life, such as lower job performance or more arguments in relationship
  • Loss of interest in activities that you usually enjoy
  • Feeling sad, hopeless or empty on most days of the week
  • Feeling tired or not motivated to do normal activities
  • Feeling anxious or worried for more than 6 months, even if its just about one area of your life
  • Having frequent thoughts of death, suicide, or self-harm

What Causes Mental Disorders

Signs and symptoms of depression

There is no single cause for mental illness. A number of factors can contribute to risk for mental illness, such as:

  • Your genes and family history
  • Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, especially if they happen in childhood
  • Biological factors such as chemical imbalances in the brain
  • Use of alcohol or recreational drugs
  • Having a serious medical condition like cancer
  • Having few friends, and feeling lonely or isolated

Mental disorders are not caused by character flaws. They have nothing to do with being lazy or weak.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Depression

Depression has various forms and can be experienced with different symptoms depending upon individual differences, including a persons age and gender. There are typical symptoms of depression, and when present, these indicate a major depressive disorder. Other forms of depression may have somewhat different symptoms, but most center around typical symptoms.

Typical symptoms of depression include:6

  • Low mood with feelings of extreme sadness, hopelessness, irritability or emptiness
  • A significant change in appetite, with either weight gain or loss
  • A change in hours spent sleeping, either more or less, nearly every day
  • Less interest in or pleasure gained from activities which were previously enjoyed
  • Lower energy level or feeling fatigued on most days
  • Noticeable change in behavior, appearing either sped up or slowed down
  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt nearly every day
  • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions on most days
  • Frequent thoughts of death or suicide, with or without a plan

What About Other Mental Illnesses And Depression

ADHD causes high energy and impulsive behavior. You may not be able to focus as well as youââ¬â¢d like. About 1 in 3 people with ADHD also have depression or have had it in the past.Ã

Sometimes it may be that you simply have both conditions. But in other cases, ADHD and its effects on your life are actually a cause of depression. And sometimes health care providers can misdiagnose depression in someone who simply has ADHD.

PTSD is when you have flashbacks, nightmares, or intrusive thoughts about a terrible event that you experienced. Think of the 9/11 terror attacks or a serious car accident or an act of violence.

Many people get past such events and are able to live healthy lives. People with PTSD may remain anxious and depressed for months or years afterward. Thatââ¬â¢s part of why PTSD often happens along with substance abuse, anxiety, and clinical depression.Ã

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder that makes people more afraid than is helpful in certain situations. You might have symptoms of a panic attack like nausea with fast breathing and heart rate. It can be especially bad in situations where thereââ¬â¢s no clear way to get away such as on public transportation or at a shopping mall. In serious cases, you might find it hard even to leave the house. Without treatment, agoraphobia can lead to depression.

Show Sources

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-V.

Fieve, R. Bipolar II, Rodale Books, 2006.

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Learn Stress Management Skills

Stress management skills may include things like breathing exercises, meditation, and progressive muscle relaxation. Mindfulness practice is another excellent stress management skill. It involves a focus upon the here and now, as opposed to worry about the future or regrets about the past. Various ways to practice all of these skills can be found online.

Depression: The Link Between Depression And Other Mental Illnesses

Battling Depression, Anxiety, and the Mental Health Stigma | Riley Rosenthal | TEDxYouth@DHS

Last Editorial Review: 11/28/2005

Depression can be triggered by other mental illnesses, but it can also lead to certain mental illnesses. These include anxiety disorders , schizophrenia, eating disorders and substance abuse. Together, these conditions affect millions of Americans each year. Fortunately, they can be treated effectively — allowing those affected to lead normal and productive lives.

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders produce an intense, often unrealistic and excessive state of apprehension and fear. They can occur during a given situation, or in anticipation of a particular situation occurring. When anxiety strikes, a person’s blood pressure may rise, his or her heart races and breathing becomes more rapid. The person may also feel nauseated and experience other signs of agitation and discomfort. The causes of anxiety are as individual as the people affected, and the symptoms vary widely in degree.

Anxiety disorders will affect close to 25 million people at some time in their lives, affecting women twice as frequently as men. Some of the most common anxiety disorders are: Panic disorder , social phobia, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder , obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder .

Panic Disorder

For somebody to be diagnosed with panic attack, they must have at least four of the following symptoms:

  • Fast heart beat
  • Feeling of losing control
  • Feelings of unreality or being detached from oneself

Social Phobia

Schizophrenia

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What Is The Link Between Smoking And Mental Health Conditions

Smoking is much more common among adults with mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, than in the general population.6 About 3 out of every 10 cigarettes smoked by adults in the United States are smoked by persons with mental health conditions.6 Why smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to experience depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions is uncertain. More research is needed to determine this. No matter the cause smoking is not a treatment for depression or anxiety. Getting help for your depression and anxiety and quitting smoking is the best way to feel better.

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What Is Social Anxiety Disorder

Social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, is a psychological condition that causes an overwhelming fear of situations that require interacting with another person or performing in front of others. Unlike being shy around strangers or nervous before a performance, social anxiety is a fear that you might humiliate yourself with your actions or speech in public.

Social phobia is common. It affects more than 15 million people in any given year. It often begins in childhood and rarely develops after age 25.

People with social phobia are often aware that their fears are irrational, but they are unable to ease or erase these fears.

The symptoms of social phobia are much the same as symptoms for other anxiety disorders. They include:

  • Difficulty talking
  • Racing heart
  • Trembling or shaking

Like with other anxiety illnesses, symptoms can be tolerable or so severe that they become socially debilitating.

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Comparison Of Ihme Estimates To Other Sources

In this entry we have focused on data trends published by the Institute of Health Metrics Global Burden of Disease study. This is currently the only source which provides estimates for all countries over time, and across the full range of mental health and substance use disorders. The World Health Organization publish estimates on depression only the comparison of depression prevalence from IHME versus WHO is shown in the scatter plot.

A range of national sources also publish estimated prevalence of depression. In many cases, the boundaries, or category differentiation in mental health disorders is different from IHME estimates. They are often therefore not directly comparable. For example, the Center for Diseases Control in the United States provides information and estimates on combined depression and anxiety disorders, treating anxiety as a subset of depression.

Selection And Training Of Interviewers

Depression, Anxiety, Stress &  Mental Health  Dr. Adam Stewart

Before main data collection began in Nickerie and Paramaribo, a small pilot study with thirty respondents was completed in the regional health centre to validate the research tool. After each day of data collection in this pilot study, the group evaluated the difficulties that had been encountered and questionnaires with invalid or missing information were put aside immediately. The pilot study showed that it was necessary to translate the questionnaire into Hindustani, English and Surinamese. Although Dutch is the main language in both Nickerie and Paramaribo, the multi-cultural society of Suriname means that the inhabitants speak different languages and so the questionnaires sometimes had to be translated to make completion easier for respondents who spoke another language.

Another conclusion to emerge from the pilot study was that the students working as interviewers needed professional training. The students were interviewed individually by a psychiatrist, a researcher and a psychologist before being selected for training. Students with an academic background in psychology, with experience in similar interview work and students who spoke more than one language were preferred.

In the last few days of the training, different dialects were practised with the students to prepare them for all types of situations in the field. The training lasted two weeks.

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They Dream Of School And None Of The Dreams Are Good

Second, its one thing to have the care available, but its another thing to have access to it. In the U.S., for example, people often dont have insurance, so they cant afford mental health care. Or they have insurance, but their plan doesnt cover mental illness adequately, despite the mental health care parity push of the last decade-plus. Another reason for lack of access is not having a mental health facility nearby, as frequently happens for people who live in rural areas.

Third, the increase in mental illness has gone hand in hand with the drug epidemic that has raged in the U.S. and other countries in the last 20 to 30 years. The one pushes the other upward in terms of prevalence, and vice versa. A person dealing with addiction as well as a co-occurring condition like depression or PTSD is very common in the addiction treatment field where I work.

Fourth point: One reason COVID has had such an outsized impact on our mental health is that so much of our maintenance mental health care slowed or came to a stop because of it. For example, it became more difficult to do things like getting refills on depression or anxiety medications, so compliance rates took a hit. No one wanted to venture out to the pharmacy for their meds! People on medication-assisted treatments with suboxone, methadone, and other helpful drugs suffered the same disruptions.

References

Different Types Of Depression

Your doctor may diagnose you with depression and say that its mild, moderate or severe depending on your symptoms and how severe they are. Or you may be diagnosed with a specific type of depression, such as:

  • dysthymia mild depression that lasts for several years
  • seasonal affective disorder depression that comes and goes in a seasonal pattern
  • postnatal depression depression that many parents experience after having a baby. Some people experience antenatal depression during pregnancy.

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Attitudes About Mental Illness And Mental Health

A CBS News poll conducted in the fall of 2019 detailed American attitudes and awareness of mental health issues. Almost 90% of respondents said there is some stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in our society. More than 30% stated that discrimination and stigma associated with mental illness has decreased over the past ten years. However, about 30% said that the situation remains unchanged.

Most of the poll respondents said they had some understanding of conditions such as anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Many said that they know someone who had been diagnosed with a psychiatric condition. The poll found that most Americans considered mental illness a serious issue.

Warning Signs Of Mental Health Disorders

Tips for coping with depression and anxiety | Michelle’s Mental Health Story | Mind

Major mental illness rarely appears without warning. In the early stages before a disorder is recognized, friends and family members may start to notice small changes. They may feel something is not right about their loved ones thinking, feelings or behavior.

According to the American Psychiatric Association, warning signs may include:

  • Social withdrawal or loss of interest in others
  • Drop in functioning at school, work or social activities
  • Thinking problems, which can involve concentration, memory or logical thought and speech
  • Increased sensitivity to sights, sounds, smells or touch
  • Lack of initiative or interest for involvement in activities
  • Feeling disconnected from oneself or ones surroundings
  • Illogical thinking, including exaggerated beliefs about personal abilities to understand meanings or influence events
  • Nervousness or fear or suspicion of others
  • Unusual or peculiar behavior
  • Sleep, appetite or mood changes

If a person displays several of these symptoms at once, and if the symptoms are interfering with the persons life, he or she should visit a mental health professional.

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