Wednesday, June 12, 2024

What Is Interpersonal Therapy For Depression

When Is It Best To Seek Therapy For Depression

Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression

After two weeks of persistent sadness or loss of capacity for pleasure, along with a sense of hopelessness or guilt and such physical changes as appetite shifts and early-morning awakening, it is wise to consider the possibility of major depression. Depression is diagnosed after a thorough health examination rules out treatable physical conditions, such as thyroid disorder, that can create many of the same symptoms. Therapy should be started as soon as a diagnosis of depression is rendered. The longer an episode of depression goes untreated, the more difficult it becomes to treat, the greater the possibility of future episodes, and the greater the possibility of inflammatory changes to the brain itself. Further, depression undermines functioning in every domain of life, including work and family starting therapy soon minimizes the disruptive impact of the disorder.

Who Can Interpersonal Psychotherapy Benefit

IPT is most often used during the acute phase of major depression, but it can also be provided as a maintenance treatment to help prevent relapse and recurrence of illness.

It is also used to treat:

  • anxiety
  • chronic fatigue
  • mood disorders such as bipolar and dysthymic disorders.

IPT has been adapted to treat patients from adolescence to old age. It is effective as a stand-alone treatment and in combination with medication.

Clinical Need And Target Population

The lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder in Canada is 10.8% annual and 1-month prevalence estimates are 4.0% and 1.3%, respectively. Depression affects occupational functioning both through absenteeism and through loss of productivity while attending work when unwell. While occupational impairment receives much attention, depression also negatively affect people’s ability to perform personal activities, such as parenting and housekeeping. A study in the United States found that people with major depressive disorder were able to perform better at work than in their personal activities.

Treatment for acute major depressive disorder often consists of pharmacological interventions and psychological interventions . The prescribing of antidepressant medications has increased over the last 20 years, mainly owing to the development of a new type of antidepressant medication called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as well as other newer agents. While antidepressants continue to be the mainstay of treatment for major depressive disorder, adherence rates remain low in part because of patients’ concerns about side effects and possible dependency. In addition, surveys have demonstrated patients’ preference for psychological interventions over treatment with antidepressants. Therefore, psychological therapies can provide an alternative or additional intervention for major depressive disorder.

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How Interpersonal Therapy Works

Treatment usually begins with your therapist conducting an interview. Based on the problems you describe, they can identify difficulties in your personal relationships and create a treatment outline consistent with your goals.

You and your therapist will focus on the key issues youre looking to resolve. A typical program involves up to 20 weekly hour-long therapy sessions.

IPT is similar to other modern psychotherapies in that its not about finding an unconscious origin of your current feelings and behavior. In this way, its unlike traditional forms of psychotherapy like psychoanalysis.

IPT instead focuses on how more immediate difficulties in interacting with others are contributing to symptoms.

Depression symptoms can complicate personal relationships. This often causes people with depression to turn inward or to express frustration or irritation toward others.

Feelings of depression can occur for multiple reasons and can often follow a major change in your life, but they dont necessarily have to follow them. Such changes or adjustments fall into one of four categories:

  • adjustment difficulties, often associated with life changes like moves, job loss, etc.
  • role transition, the beginning or ending of a relationship or marriage or diagnosis of a disease
  • role dispute, a struggle in a relationship
  • interpersonal deficit, the absence of a major life event

You may be encouraged to take part in social activities that you found stressful or painful in the past.

How Long Will Therapy Be Needed

How Interpersonal Therapy Improves Depression And Social ...

Research indicates that 50 percent of patients recover within 15 to 20 sessions. As with drug therapy, patients fare better when therapy is continued for a period beyond symptom remission. There are three goals of psychotherapy. The first is responsean improvement in symptoms. Patients may begin to experience improvement within a few sessions. The second is remissiondisappearance of all symptoms and a return to healthy functioning in all domains of life. There may be a temptation to stop therapy at this point, but the consensus of experts is that treatment should continue at least four months after disappearance of symptoms to ensure recovery and to maintain the ability to handle the stresses of daily life that challenge coping skills. Completing a full course of therapy is critical for full recovery.

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What To Look For In An Ipt Therapist

IPT is a relatively young psychotherapy that was developed as a research intervention, and until recently, most practitioners of IPT were researchers. Its research success has led to IPTs inclusion in clinical treatment guidelines and growing interest among clinicians, but the standards for clinical training for non-researchers are still being defined. The International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy , an international umbrella organization, deliberates training issues and allows countries to develop their own credentialing processes for IPT.

A therapist should help the patient identify any interpersonal issues he or she wants to address, and rank them in order of importance. The therapist should also offer support regarding clarification of issues, communication analysis, and supportive listening.


Description Of The Studies

The main characteristics of the RCT studies included are summarized in Table . One study was carried out in the Netherlands , one in New Zealand , one in Canada , one in the UK , one in Germany , and three in the USA . All studies clearly described eligibility criteria and success-of-treatment point. All but two included an intention-to-treat analysis. Seven studies reported comparable sociodemographic and psychiatric variables at baseline. One did not report these variables.

Table 2 Summary of the characteristics of the includes studies

A total of 1233 patients were included in the review, of whom 854 completed treatment in outpatient facilities. Of the patients included, 392 received IPT, 14 received CBASP , 160 received CBT, 153 received pharmacotherapy , 67 received pharmacotherapy plus clinical management, 49 received IPT and nefazodone, 47 received IPT and a placebo, 34 received a placebo plus clinical management, 92 received usual care consisting of communication with a physician for appropriate treatment, and 51 were put on a wait list. The mean age in seven studies ranged from 29.4 to 40.2years old, and the percentage of female patients varied from 55% to 83%, except for one study, in which only females participated . One study did not report these data . All patients were diagnosed with non-psychotic MDD as a primary diagnosis according to the DSM-III-R , DSM-IV , or the Research Diagnostic Criteria .

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Identification Of An Interpersonal Focus

Interpersonal areas are explored during the assessment phase to establish which of them reflects the primary area of interpersonal difficulty related to the current depression . The different strands of the assessment are drawn together in a focused formulation to explicitly link the depressive symptoms to a central difficulty within the patient’s interpersonal situation. This will form the basis of the second stage of treatment.

Many patients experience difficulties in more than one area simultaneously. By being helped to prioritise one area to work on, they are assisted in evaluating the relative impact of their interpersonal difficulties on their depression. They are helped to focus their limited energy on resolving difficulties in a specified area, rather than becoming overwhelmed by the enormity of tackling everything at once.

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Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression

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A psychological health specialist will certainly create a therapy plan that works for your specific situation. In 2019 the Fda authorized esketamine, a ketamine nasal spray, for the treatment of drug-resistant depression and suicidality. This authorization was offered only after big, randomized, placebo-controlled tests, said Dr. Sanacora. This research study additionally caused the production of stringent guidelines for use of the item like performing the treatment in a certified client depression interpersonal therapy medical professionals office or clinic and checking a person for two hrs after therapy. Several ketamine service providers, including Mindbloom, require customers to meet a psychological medical professional to guarantee they are a great suitable for the therapy. Many individuals with depression, nevertheless, understandably battle with self-care during episodes.

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Interpersonal And Social Rhythms Therapy

Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy is designed to treat bipolar disorder. It emphasizes the importance of regular sleeping and eating schedules as well as social functioning in helping people with bipolar disorder avoid mood episodes and manage their symptoms. It is used in combination with medication.

Despite being highly structured, each person’s therapeutic experience is unique, because IPT is tailored to the specific mental health condition being treated and to an individual’s needs and goals.

The History Of Interpersonal Psychotherapy

Gerald Klerman, Eugene Paykel, and Myrna Weissman first developed interpersonal psychotherapy at Yale University in the 1970s. They were investigating the effectiveness of treating depression using the tricyclic antidepressant medication in conjunction with psychotherapy.

The studies admittedly had some limitations, and foremost among them was the fact that the numbers of control subjects were too small. There was also no follow-up on cases where the study participants relapsed.

Since then, research on IPT has advanced by leaps and bounds. Researchers had to establish the relationship between medication and psychotherapy, isolate IPT as a treatment method, and compare the use of IPT with cases where the participants used antidepressant medications alone without the therapy.

Researchers found that the combination of IPT and medication provided the best outcomes for participants. Professionals also use IPT to treat depression without medication, which may make it a desirable treatment for people who are anxious about developing a dependence on drugs.

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Consent And Release Form

This form is to be read and completed in accordance with the following instructions before it can be signed.

  • 1.

    I, _____ _____ allow Health Quality Ontario to use to inform the development of an evidence based review:

    Check off all appropriate boxes:

  • a)

    ___ a recording of my voice

  • b)

    ___ a quotation or summary of my opinion that I expressed during an interview

  • c)
  • Please read the following paragraphs before affixing your signature under section 3.

  • a)

    Personal information collected pursuant to, and on this form, will be used for purposes described on this form and for no other purpose. Health Quality Ontario acknowledges that you have provided this personal information freely and voluntarily. If you have any questions about this collection of this personal information, contact:

  • b)
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  • 3.

    Signature is to be affixed in the appropriate space provided below.

    I have read this form after it was completed, I understand and agree to be bound by its contents, and I am eighteen years of age or over.

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  • What Is Interpersonal Therapy For Depression

    Formulation worksheet for postpartum depression

    4.7/5Interpersonal therapytreating depressionpsychotherapy

    Keeping this in view, what type of therapy is interpersonal therapy?

    Interpersonal therapy. Interpersonal therapy is a method of treating depression. IPT is a form of psychotherapy that focuses on you and your relationships with other people. It’s based on the idea that personal relationships are at the center of psychological problems.

    Secondly, who created interpersonal therapy? Interpersonal psychotherapy was developed by Gerald Klerman and Myrna Weissman in the 1970s and based on the work of Harry Stack Sullivan, Adolf Meyer, and John Bowlby. IPT is a type of therapy that utilizes a uniquely structured model for the treatment of mental health issues.

    Considering this, does interpersonal therapy work?

    Interpersonal therapy, or IPT, is a short-term, focused treatment for depression. Studies have shown that IPT, which addresses interpersonal issues, may be at least as effective as short-term treatment with antidepressants for mild to moderate forms of clinical depression.

    What is the premise of the interpersonal theory of depression?

    Coyne’s interpersonal theory of depression postulated that the combination of depressive symptoms and excessive reassurance-seeking leads to interpersonal problems . The present study is one of the first to test this model among youth, particularly a clinical sample of youth.

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    What Are The Benefits Of Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    IPT is an evidence-based therapy which means there is scientific evidence that it is effective in treating depression.

    It is a no-fault therapy which takes the pressure off of clients in believing they are to blame for their depression: this often leads to early improvements in mood.

    IPT works to empower the client to use tools and newly acquired skills beyond the therapy setting.

    IPT utilizes a well defined client goal so that progress can be measured.

    IPT is short term, typically 12-16 sessions, so it is cost effective.

    IPT is time-limited and this works to motivate the client to achieve their goal.

    IPT offers an optional maintenance component to help to maintain gains over time.

    Interpersonal Psychotherapy For Depression

    Interpersonal Psychotherapy was developed in the 1970’s by Dr Gerald L Klerman and Dr Myrna M Weissman for the treatment of depression. It has since been adapted for different disorders and age groups, as well as for use in diverse medical and community settings worldwide. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials in high, middle and low-income countries, using both an individual and a group approach.

    This manual has modified IPT for depression for use in 8 session groups, and involves a simplified format for facilitators who may not have had previous mental health specific training. The mhGAP Intervention Guide includes both pharmacological and non-pharmacological first-line treatment options for depression, including IPT. IPT may be provided at health-care centres by supervised non-specialized staff with time to deliver the intervention or if unavailable, non-specialized health-care providers may refer for IPT delivered in community settings, within social services or through specialized mental health care.

    Image credit: World Health Organization

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    What Are The Ideas Behind Interpersonal Therapy For Depression

    Interpersonal therapy is a manual-based treatment. That means the therapist strictly adheres to a treatment process whose effectiveness is supported by evidence.

    According to the International Society for Interpersonal Therapy, there are three components to depression.

    • Symptom formation
    • Social functioning
    • Personality issues

    IPT is a short-term treatment option that typically consists of 12 to 16 one-hour weekly sessions. The therapist focuses on identifiable problems in how an individual interacts with or doesn’t interact with others. When those problems are addressed, the patient realizes a benefit in their experience of symptoms.

    Except to check on their severity and the effect of the various treatments, symptoms are not addressed in therapy sessions. Instead the therapist works collaboratively with the patient, either individually or in a group, to identify and then address one or two significant problems in their interactions. The number of problems addressed is deliberately limited to one or two for the whole course of treatment. The result is an intense focus on how to make the necessary adjustments in interpersonal situations that will help reduce symptoms of depression.

    The types of problems addressed fall into four categories:

    Grief. In IPT, grief is the experience of loss through death. Grief becomes a problem when it is delayed or becomes excessive so that it lasts beyond the normal time for bereavement.

    How Will Know That Therapy Is Working

    Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression Video

    Feeling better is a good yardstick, but it is by no means the only measure of therapeutic effectiveness. Mental health professionals regularly assess the progress of therapy and rely on two important tools to monitor patient gains. One is their own experienced judgment of the patients ability to engage in the therapeutic process. The other is a standardized symptom rating scale that assesses patient standing on each of the constellation of symptoms of depression, from personal outlook to physical slowness. Has the veil on thinking or sluggishness of thought or speech persisted, lifted slightly, lifted significantly, or completely disappeared? Does the patient weep frequently, occasionally, or not at all? The most widely used symptom checklist is the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, often called the Ham-D.

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    What Is The Distinction In Between A Web Counseling Solution As Well As A Specialist On Website How Do They Work In Different Ways

    There are a great deal of differences in between the solutions. We will be checking out the distinctions in their techniques, the kinds of clients they offer, as well as what you can expect from each solution.

    A net therapy solution offers suggestions and support to individuals with joint troubles such as anxiousness, depression, addiction, self-injury, or mental illness. A lot of these web therapists are psycho therapists that have experience supplying aid through therapy. They generally offer online assessment. The specialist on website isnt simply a psychologist that an agency has actually worked with to work with customers in therapy sessions however likewise a therapist with years of experience, which is normally existing for individual therapy sessions.

    There are significant distinctions in between both kinds of services, consisting of where they function , what kinds of customers, as well as what kind of results they can provide.

    Relating Depression To The Interpersonal Context

    A detailed review and evaluation of the patient’s relationship network is conducted early in therapy. This helps both to orient the patient to the interpersonal perspective of the therapy and to begin the prioritisation of specific areas of interpersonal difficulty for particular attention. Details are collected on the nature and function of current significant relationships and their association with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms. Patients are encouraged to actively evaluate current relationships and to consider how they might be contributing to the current depressive experience. This also provides an opportunity to evaluate the social resources the patient has available to facilitate work on their recovery and the extent to which these are currently being utilised.

    Considerable detail is collected during this stage of the assessment, and in exploring the relationships it can be helpful to create a record, such as a diagram of the patient’s network . This detailed inventory is a means of understanding the current interpersonal context, and clarifying current interpersonal changes, dissatisfactions and conflicts, which may guide focus selection. It is crucial, therefore, that the future task of negotiating a focus is held in mind when conducting the inventory and used to make enquiries purposeful rather than generic.

    FIG 2 Inventory diagram of a patient’s interpersonal network.

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