Wednesday, February 28, 2024

Major Depressive Disorder And Depression

Treatment For Depression And Mood Disorders

Depression and major depressive disorder | Behavior | MCAT | Khan Academy

Because the causes of depression are complex, the treatments for depression are usually most effective when they are multi-modal, explains Dr. Shcherbakov.

He recommends patients begin by addressing any physical health issues that may exacerbate their depressive episodes.

These can include poor sleep or a bad diet with a lack of nutrition.

Getting regular exercise, such as a daily walk, can also be helpful for those experiencing mild or moderate depressive symptoms.

The most successful evidence-based treatment for depression, however, is a psychological approach known as Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy .

Tholen points to a comprehensive review of 325 different research studies involving more than 9000 subjects that found CBT significantly improved depression in adults and adolescents.

CBT relieves depression by challenging underlying dysfunctional thoughtsthose that cause distress without inspiring constructive action, says Tholen.

Other therapy styles that have been shown by research to be effective in helping with depression include Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy .

Medication is commonly thought of as a first line treatment for depression in the mediathis is far from observed practice.

Dr. Shcherbakov points out that while medication such as SSRIs and SNRIs may be a helpful adjunct treatment to depression, these medications should not be the sole means through which people seek to treat their depressive episodes.

Fatigue And Loss Of Energy

Major depressive disorder is typically associated with loss of energy and fatigue, sometimes even after a good nights rest. People who are dealing with major depression often have trouble sleeping, which can also cause extreme tiredness during the day.

Chronic fatigue syndrome is another condition that can occur alongside major depressive disorder symptoms, and it makes a person experience continuous feelings of exhaustion without any easily discernible cause. This condition can be a symptom of depression, but its not to be mistaken with depression.

How Is Major Depressive Disorder Treated

MDD is often treated with medication and psychotherapy. Some lifestyle adjustments can also help ease certain symptoms.

People who have severe MDD or have thoughts of harming themselves may need to stay in a hospital during treatment. Some might also need to take part in an outpatient treatment program until symptoms improve.

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Can Depression Be Prevented

You can help prevent depression by getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet and practicing regular self-care activities such as exercise, meditation and yoga.

If youve had depression before, you may be more likely to experience it again. If you have depression symptoms, get help. Care can help you feel better sooner.

How Is Depression Syndrome Diagnosed

Major Depressive Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Everyone may feel sad or down from time to time. However, clinical depression has more intense symptoms that last two weeks or longer.

To determine whether you have clinical depression, your healthcare provider will ask questions. You may complete a questionnaire and provide a family history. Your healthcare provider may also perform an exam or order lab tests to see if you have another medical condition.

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Wondering Whether You May Be Depressed What The Symptoms Of Major Depressive Disorder Are And What The Treatment Is Heres What You Need To Know About Depression And How To Get Support And Help

What to do if youre depressed?

What is major depressive disorder ?

How to stop being depressed?

Depression can take many forms, however there are several consistent symptoms.

Mental health professionals use these symptoms and signs of depression, listed below, to determine whether someone is suffering from a depressed mood and/or major depressive disorder .

Some people who are depressed experience profound anhedoniaa loss of pleasure in everyday activities.

Americans have been growing over the past 18 years.

Others experiencing depression may not be fully aware of whats going on and may attribute our experiences to a low mood or feeling down.

Whether were facing new challenges at work, tackling issues with family or conquering financial difficultiesfeeling down, experiencing a low mood, or feeling anxious can be a normal human response to the wide array of stressors we all experience.

Feeling down can be a response to particular stressors and grief, howeverin these casestemporary low mood generally does not mean we are depressed.

But, what about if feeling down begins to take over and become something we are experiencing every day?

Or if anhedonia kicks in with full force, rendering us unable to enjoy our lives as we did before?

Does it mean were depressed? And, what exactly is depression, anyway?

Read on to find out the official signs and symptoms of depression, as well as the treatment, and how to get help if you think you might be depressed.

What Are The Signs Of Major Depression In Men

Depression in men is significantly underreported. Men who suffer from clinical depression are less likely to seek help or even talk about their experience.

Signs of depression in men may include irritability, anger, or drug and alcohol abuse . Suppressing negative feelings can result in violent behavior directed both inwardly and outwardly. It can also result in an increase in illness, suicide, and homicide.

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Reach Aac Out For Help

If you are experiencing symptoms of depression or thoughts of suicide, help is available. Please call a suicide helpline or 911 immediately if you are having thoughts of harming yourself.

Diagnosing Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder | Clinical Presentation

If you or a loved one have been feeling depressed and low, seek help as soon as possible. You can reach out to a mental healthcare provider or contact your primary care doctor for a diagnosis or referral.

Your healthcare provider will ask you a series of questions that will likely cover your symptoms, thoughts and feelings, and medical history. They may need to perform a physical or psychological exam, or conduct lab tests, in order to rule out other health conditions that can cause similar symptoms.

Your healthcare provider will determine whether or not your symptoms meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, which include:

  • Having a persistently depressed mood and lack of interest in activities
  • Having five or more symptoms of depression
  • Having symptoms every day, almost all day
  • Having symptoms for over two weeks
  • Being unable to function like you did before, due to the symptoms

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What Are The Types Of Major Depression

There are several types of depressive disorders:

  • Postpartum Depression affects women after having a baby. It causes intense, long-lasting feelings of anxiety, sadness, and fatigue, making it difficult for mothers to care for themselves and/or their babies, as well as handle daily responsibilities. Postpartum depression can start anywhere from weeks to months after childbirth.
  • Psychotic Depression is a form of depression with psychosis, such as delusions and/or hallucinations .
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder is triggered by changes in seasons. This form of depression usually occurs during the fall and winter months when there is less sunlight.
  • Melancholic Depression is a severe form of depression where people have a complete loss of pleasure in almost all activities.
  • Neuroendocrine Abnormalities And Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Possible abnormalities of the neurotransmitter systems remain under investigation. Compared with control subjects, depressed prepubertal children had lower cortisol secretion during the first 4 hours of sleep, according to De Bellis et al. Nocturnal secretion of adrenocorticotropin, growth hormone, and prolactin did not differ between the 2 groups.

    Potential biological risk factors have been identified for depression in the elderly. Neurodegenerative diseases , stroke, multiple sclerosis, seizure disorders, cancer, macular degeneration, and chronic pain have been associated with higher rates of depression. Alternatively, a large, longitudinal study found that depression that starts early in life increases the risk for Alzheimer’s disease . Researchers used data from the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg Sweden, which began in 1968. The study sample included 800 women , born between 1914 and 1930, who were followed up with in 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000, 2009, and 2012. Data show those women who experienced the onset of depression before age 20 years were three times more likely to develop AD .

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    Risk Factors For Depression

    Depression can affect anyoneeven a person who appears to live in relatively ideal circumstances.

    Several factors can play a role in depression:

    • Biochemistry: Differences in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.
    • Genetics: Depression can run in families. For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70 percent chance of having the illness sometime in life.
    • Personality: People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression.
    • Environmental factors: Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make some people more vulnerable to depression.

    Everyone Experiences Depression Differently

    Major Depressive Disorder: Understanding the Significance of Residual ...

    Its important to note that everyone experiences mental health conditions such as major depressive disorder differently. While some people may have many symptoms of depression, others may have only a few. The frequency, duration, and severity of the symptoms can also vary from person to person.

    The symptoms of major depressive disorder can also vary depending on a persons age. Listed below are some symptoms people may experience, depending on their age:

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    Depression And Addiction Risk Factors

    Research indicates that depression is likely caused by a combination of factors. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, genetic, environmental, biological, and psychological factors all have the potential to contribute to the development of MDD.1

    While it is not possible to predict exactly who will be impacted by depression, certain risk factors for MDD do exist. Factors may include:1,2

    • Past experience with depression or other mental illnesses.
    • Family history of depression, bipolar disorder, suicide, or alcoholism.
    • Significant life changes.

    A clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder requires that the individual experiences at least 5 of these symptoms in a 2-week period .3 With the exception of thoughts of death suicidal ideations, plan, or attempt or weight changes, a symptom must be present nearly every day to be counted. major depressive disorder symptoms must be a change from prior functioning and cannot be due to another medical or mental health condition or caused by a substance. They must also cause significant distress or impair functioning and cannot be an appropriate response to a significant loss.

    How Is Depression Diagnosed

    Depression can happen along with other medical conditions. These include heart disease, or cancer, as well as other mental health conditions. Early diagnosis and treatment is key to recovery.

    A diagnosis is made after a careful mental health exam and medical history done. This is usually done by a mental health professional.

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    When To Call Your Healthcare Provider

    If you have 5 or more of these symptoms for at least 2 weeks, call your healthcare provider:

    • Lasting sad, anxious, or empty mood

    • Loss of interest in almost all activities

    • Appetite and weight changes

    • Changes in sleep patterns, such as inability to sleep or sleeping too much

    • Slowing of physical activity, speech, and thinking OR agitation, increased restlessness, and irritability

    • Ongoing feelings of worthlessness and/or feelings of undue guilt

    • Trouble concentrating or making decisions

    • Repeating thoughts of death or suicide, wishing to die, or attempting suicide

    Drug Therapy For Depression

    8 Signs of Major Depressive Disorder

    Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression:

    Choice of drug Drug Choice and Administration of Antidepressants Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Serotonin modulators Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors… read more may be guided by past response to a specific antidepressant. Otherwise, SSRIs are often the initial drugs of choice. Although the different SSRIs are equally effective for typical cases, certain properties of the drugs make them more or less appropriate for certain patients .

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    Symptoms Of Major Depressive Disorder

    These are some of the symptoms of major depressive disorder you may experience:

    • Feeling sad or low
    • Having difficulty paying attention, remembering, or making decisions
    • Having difficulty sleeping, waking up too early, or oversleeping
    • Experiencing unplanned changes in eating habits and weight
    • Experiencing headaches, cramps, digestive issues, or other aches and pains that dont have a clear cause and dont get better with treatment
    • Talking about death, having thoughts of suicide, or attempting self-harm

    Everyone experiences depression differently. While some people may have a few symptoms, others may have many. The frequency, severity, and duration of the symptoms can also vary from person to person.

    Treatment For Depression As A Co

    Treatment for a co-occurring disorder where depression is present often involves different forms of psychotherapy, medications and prescription antidepressants, and other evidence-based techniques. At our inpatient addiction treatment facility in New Jersey, we offer different levels of rehab services designed to meet the needs of each patient we treat. Call us right now at to speak to one of our rehab admissions navigators to learn more about ways to pay for rehab, using insurance to pay for rehab, and treatments, and get all of the questions you have answered. Also, you can get started on your recovery by having your insurance verified through our secure

    If you need help, do not wait. Contact us right now to get all the information you need to get started on your recovery today.

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    Treatment Of Major Depressive Disorder

    According to the American Psychiatric Association , of all mental disorders, depression is among the most treatable, as 80% to 90% of people who have depression eventually find relief with treatment.6

    Major depressive disorder treatments may involve one or both of the following: 6,14

    • Therapy: Cognitive behavioral therapy has been demonstrated to be effective for treating depression. CBT focuses on the present situation and how to solve current problems. CBT helps the client recognize and change maladaptive thinking and behaviors. Family and interpersonal therapy may also be used to help address conflicts and issues in the individuals closest relationships.
    • Medication: Brain chemistry may be a contributing factor to a persons depression, so medications that target abnormalities in a persons brain chemistry may help to bring about symptom relief. Antidepressant medications can help a person feel better within 12 weeks, though it may take up to 3 months for them to feel all of the benefits.

    For patients with severe depression that does not respond to other treatments, brain stimulation therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be beneficial.15

    Other complementary approaches that may help alleviate symptoms of depression include:16-19

    • Regular exercise.
    • Light therapy .
    • Adequate sleep.
    • Avoiding alcohol.
    • Meditation.

    Tips For Living Well With Major Depressive Disorder

    extremedesignhomes: Symptoms Of Severe Depression And Anxiety

    Living with major depression can feel lonely. People may be fearful or ashamed of being labeled with a serious mental illness, causing them to suffer in silence, rather than get help. In fact, most people with major depression never seek the right treatment. But those struggling with this illness are not alone. Its one of the most common and most treatable mental health disorders. With early, continuous treatment, people can gain control of their symptoms, feel better, and get back to enjoying their lives.

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    Where Does Depression Come From

    We know that four key playersserotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and glutamateare neurotransmitters in our brains implicated in depression and mood disorders.

    But simply blaming these four neurotransmitters is not enough to give us a the entire story on the causes of depression.

    According to Dr. Shcherbakov, Genetics, physical health, cognitive style, and environment all contribute to depression.

    He points out that certain individuals may be more susceptible to depressive episodes because of their genetic family history, for instance.

    Others with poor physical healthsuch as those with cardiovascular diseasesare also significantly more susceptible to experiencing a depressive episode, says Dr. Shcherbakov.

    Some of the root causes of depression are also attributed to maladaptive cognitive styles: individuals who are more pessimistic or ruminate excessively are more likely to experience a depressive disorder in their lives.

    Although it seems that our emotions and motivations result directly from the events and circumstances we encounter, they are instead reactions to our self-talk,” says retired clinical psychologist Dr. John F. Tholen, Ph.D., author of Focused Positivity: The Path to Success and Peace of Mind,“the internal monologue that streams endlessly through our waking consciousness, interpreting whatever we experience.

    Poor social support systems, unhealthy environments and high levels of stress can also contribute in a significant way.

    How Is Depression Treated

    Depression is among the most treatable of mental disorders. Between 80% and 90% percent of people with depression eventually respond well to treatment. Almost all patients gain some relief from their symptoms.

    Before a diagnosis or treatment, a health professional should conduct a thorough diagnostic evaluation, including an interview and a physical examination. In some cases, a blood test might be done to make sure the depression is not due to a medical condition like a thyroid problem or a vitamin deficiency . The evaluation will identify specific symptoms and explore medical and family histories as well as cultural and environmental factors with the goal of arriving at a diagnosis and planning a course of action.

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