Thursday, June 13, 2024

Mood Disorder With Depressive Features

What Are Mood Disorders

What is Major Depressive Disorder with Mixed Features?

Mental health problems ranging from depression to bipolar disorder are known as mood disorders, or affective disorders. In any of these disorders, a serious change in mood shapes your childs emotional state. Unlike a normal bad mood a child feels occasionally, a mood disorder involves thoughts and feelings that are intense, difficult to manage, and persistent. A mood disorder is a real medical condition, not something a child will likely just “get over on his own.

Today, clinicians and researchers believe that mood disorders in children remain one of the most underdiagnosed health problems. Mood disorders that go undiagnosed can put kids at risk for other conditions, like disruptive behavior and substance use disorders, that remain after the mood disorder is treated. Children and teens with a mood disorder dont always show the same symptoms as adults. So it can be difficult for parents to recognize a problem in their child, especially since he or she may not easily express his or her thoughts or feelings.

The most common mood disorders in children and adolescents include:

Girls are at least twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Boys and girls are equally likely to develop bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Drug Therapy For Depression

Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression:

Choice of drug Drug Choice and Administration of Antidepressants Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Serotonin modulators Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors… read more may be guided by past response to a specific antidepressant. Otherwise, SSRIs are often the initial drugs of choice. Although the different SSRIs are equally effective for typical cases, certain properties of the drugs make them more or less appropriate for certain patients .

Can Depression Cause Psychosis

Psychotic depression is also called major depression with psychotic features. That means psychosis is sometimes a symptom of a severe major depressive disorder. Psychosis, as a symptom of depression, often comes with psychotic symptoms that are different from psychosis caused by other disorders. Psychotic depression can come with delusions of worthlessness or failure. It may cause you to feel that everyone hates you or resents you. You may also feel that your activities or goals are pointless. Psychosis caused by schizophrenia may be more bizarre and doesnt clearly tie back to specific emotions.

Psychotic depression may seem like an escalation of everyday depression symptoms. For instance, there may be a fine line between feeling worthless and feeling like you were destined to be worthless, and nothing you can do will ever change that, which borders on delusional thinking. For that reason, psychotic depression is often very difficult to diagnose. Because of this, it often may go undiagnosed.

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How Can Loved Ones Help A Depressed Person

The most important thing anyone can do for a depressed person is to help him or her get an appropriate diagnosis and treatment. It may require making an appointment on their behalf and accompanying them to the doctor. Encouraging a loved one to stay in treatment is helpful.Emotional support is also invaluable. This involves understanding, patience, affection, and encouragement. Engage the depressed person in conversation and listen carefully. Do not disparage feelings expressed, but point out realities and offer hope.

References

Journal of the American Medical AssociationBiological PsychiatryJournal of Clinical PsychiatryJournal of Affective DisordersWorld PsychiatryNew England Journal of MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of SciencesNew Psychotherapy for MenMen and depression: clinical and empirical perspectivesAmerican Family PhysicianNew England Journal of MedicineNew England Journal of MedicineNew England Journal of Medicine

Depression And Physical Illness

Depressive Disorder Due To Another Medical Condition With Mixed ...

Depression is associated with physical illness as well. Some 25% of hospitalized medical patients have noticeable depressive symptoms and about 5% are suffering from major depression. Chronic medical conditions associated with depression include heart disease, cancer, vitamin deficiencies, diabetes, hepatitis, and malaria. Depression also is a common effect of neurological disorders, including Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases, multiple sclerosis, strokes, and brain tumors. Even moderate depressive symptoms are associated with a higher than average rate of arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and high blood pressure. Depression can mimic medical illness and any illness feels worse to someone suffering from depression.

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Mood Disorder Due To Known Physiological Condition With Depressive Features

    2016201720182019202020212022Billable/Specific Code
  • F06.31 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes.
  • Short description: Mood disorder due to known physiol cond w depressv features
  • The 2022 edition of ICD-10-CM F06.31 became effective on October 1, 2021.
  • This is the American ICD-10-CM version of F06.31 – other international versions of ICD-10 F06.31 may differ.
  • Depressive disorder due to known physiological condition, with depressive features
  • Applicable To annotations, or

Are Depressive Symptoms Different For Different People

Not everyone experiences every symptom, nor do people experience the same symptoms to the same degree. Symptoms may vary not only between individuals but over time in the same individual. Some people have observable behavioral changes, including disrupted sleep and appetite changes. Others have no physical symptoms but their outlook on life grows notably more pessimistic.

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Other Psychiatric Conditions In Which Depression Can Be A Primary Symptom

Sometimes depression is symptomatic of another mental disorder. This is particularly true when the nature of the mental disorder causes excessive distress to the individual. While, in this context, the depression is a symptom, it is still important to recognize its impact on the person and his or her ability to respond to substance abuse treatment.

Some of the psychiatric disorders in which depression can play a major role include:

What Are The Symptoms Of Bipolar Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder

In bipolar disorder, the dramatic episodes of high and low moods do not follow a set pattern. Someone may feel the same mood state several times before switching to the opposite mood. These episodes can happen over a period of weeks, months, and sometimes even years.

How severe it gets differs from person to person and can also change over time, becoming more or less severe.

Symptoms of mania :

  • Excessive happiness, hopefulness, and excitement

  • Sudden changes from being joyful to being irritable, angry, and hostile

  • Restlessness

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Whats The Outlook For People With Mood Disorders

Mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder may recur or be ongoing and therefore may require long-term or lifetime treatment. It is important to take your medications as prescribed. After starting your medications, it may take two to six weeks before you begin to notice a change in your symptoms. Do not stop taking your medication, even if you begin to feel better.

Discuss any concerns you have about changing or stopping medications with your doctor or another health professional. Ask your doctor whether you might need to try a different medication or have the dosage adjusted, if the one you are taking is ineffective or causes unpleasant side effects such as headaches, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Psychotherapy has been shown to be helpful treatment approach and is often used together with medication or brain stimulation therapy. Minor forms of depression can be treated with psychotherapy alone. Brain stimulation therapies are usually tried when other treatment options have not been successful, in people with severe symptoms, and in those who cannot tolerate the side effects of drug therapy. Every therapy has its potential role, as each patient with a mood disorder is unique.

Seek help immediately if you feel suicidal or have thoughts of harming yourself or others.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/16/2018.

References

What Are The Symptoms Of Common Mood Disorders

Symptoms depend on the type of mood disorder that is present.

Symptoms of major depression may include:

  • Feeling sad most of the time or nearly every day
  • Lack of energy or feeling sluggish
  • Feeling worthless or hopeless
  • Loss of appetite or overeating
  • Gaining weight or losing weight
  • Loss of interest in activities that formerly brought enjoyment
  • Sleeping too much or not enough
  • Frequent thoughts about death or suicide
  • Difficulty concentrating or focusing

Symptoms of bipolar disorder may include both depression and mania. Symptoms of hypomanic or manic episodes include:

  • Feeling extremely energized or elated
  • Rapid speech or movement
  • Risk-taking behavior, such as spending too much money or driving recklessly
  • Unusual increase in activity or trying to do too many things at once
  • Racing thoughts
  • Feeling jumpy or on edge for no apparent reason

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Due To Another Medical Condition

“Mood disorder due to a general medical condition” is used to describe manic or depressive episodes which occur secondary to a medical condition. There are many medical conditions that can trigger mood episodes, including neurological disorders , metabolic disorders , gastrointestinal diseases , endocrine disease , cardiovascular disease , pulmonary disease , cancer, and autoimmune diseases .

Treatment For Bipolar Disorder

Mood Disorders

If you spot the symptoms of bipolar disorder in yourself or someone else, dont wait to get help. Ignoring the problem wont make it go away in fact, it will almost certainly get worse. Living with untreated bipolar disorder can lead to problems in everything from your career to your relationships to your health. But bipolar disorder is highly treatable, so diagnosing the problem and starting treatment as early as possible can help prevent these complications.

If youre reluctant to seek treatment because you like the way you feel when youre manic, remember that the energy and euphoria come with a price. Mania and hypomania often turn destructive, hurting you and the people around you.

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Characteristics Of Depressive And Bipolar Disorder Patients With Mixed Features

International Consortium for Psychotic & Mood Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Lucio Bini Mood Disorder Centers, Cagliari, Rome, Italy

Leonardo Tondo, Mailman Research Center 306, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478-9106, USA.

International Consortium for Psychotic & Mood Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA

Department of Psychiatry, Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada

International Consortium for Psychotic & Mood Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

International Consortium for Psychotic & Mood Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Lucio Bini Mood Disorder Centers, Cagliari, Rome, Italy

Leonardo Tondo, Mailman Research Center 306, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478-9106, USA.

International Consortium for Psychotic & Mood Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA

Department of Psychiatry, Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada

International Consortium for Psychotic & Mood Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

What Is The Dsm

In 1952, the APA published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to classify mental health conditions and outline their associated diagnosing criteria.

Healthcare and mental health professionals often use the DSM as a reference guide for diagnosing mental health conditions.

With its latest revision released in 2013, the DSM is now in its 5th edition .

Many experts in the mental health field used evidence-based research, literature reviews, and other credible diverse sources of information to revise the DSM.

You can find symptoms, criteria, contributing factors, and much more for more than 20 mental health classifications, and even some new conditions were identified and added.

Specifiers for each condition listed are added extensions that provide medical professionals with clarifying information to ensure a more accurate diagnosis.

When making a diagnosis, all the answers may not be found in this manual, but its a great place to start.

  • difficulty functioning due to their heightened irritability
  • reacting out of proportion to the situation

DMDD may be a newly classified disorder, but treatment is available.

Treatment often centers around what has worked for similar disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety.

A combination of medication and psychotherapy treatments, such as parent training, is often recommended.

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Are There Different Types Of Bipolar Disorder

There are a few types of bipolar disorder, including:

Bipolar I disorder: With this type, you have extreme erratic behavior, with manic âupâ periods that last at least a week or are so severe that you need medical care. There are also usually extreme âdownâ periods that last at least 2 weeks.

Bipolar II disorder: With this type, you also have erratic highs and lows, but it isnât as extreme as bipolar I.

Cyclothymic disorder: This type involves periods of manic and depressive behavior that last at least 2 years in adults or 1 year in children and teens. The symptoms arenât as intense as bipolar disorder I or bipolar disorder II.

“Unspecified” or “other specified” bipolar disorder is now used to describe conditions in which a person has only a few of the mood and energy symptoms that define a manic or hypomanic episode, or the symptoms may not last long enough to be considered as clear-cut “episodes.”

Rapid cycling is not a type of bipolar disorder, but a term used to describe the course of illness in people with bipolar I or II disorder. It applies when mood episodes occur four or more times over a 1-year period. Women are more likely to have this type of illness course than men, and it can come and go at any time in the course of bipolar disorder. Rapid cycling is driven largely by depression and carries an increased risk for suicidal thoughts or behaviors.

Alcohol Substance Abuse And Depression

What is Atypical Depression?

Alcoholism and other forms of drug dependence are also related to depression. Dual diagnosis – substance abuse and another psychiatric disorder, usually a mood disorder – is an increasingly serious psychiatric concern. Whether drug abuse causes depression, depression leads to drug abuse, or both have a common cause, a vicious spiral ensues when addicts use the drugs to relieve symptoms the drugs have caused. Cocaine and other stimulants act on neurotransmitters in the brains pleasure center, causing elation that is followed by depression as the effect subsides. Sometimes what appears to be major depression clears up after abstinence from alcohol or drugs. People with serious mood disorders also have twice the average rate of nicotine addiction, and many become depressed when they try to stop smoking.

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Atypical Symptoms In The Depressed Phase Of Bipolar Illness

Clinical lore suggests that the depressed phase of bipolar disorder is frequently characterized by atypical depressive symptoms. The Pittsburgh group has suggested for many years that the depressive phase of bipolar illness is hypersomnic with retarded activation.26 There are few studies that quantify the presence of atypical symptoms in an unselected group of depressed bipolar patients. Using DSM-IV criteria, Robertson et al13 examined 109 patients, 79 of whom were unipolar and 30 of whom were bipolar. Criteria for definite atypical depression were met by 28% of unipolar and 30% of bipolar patients. Criteria for probable atypical depression were met by 22% of unipolar and 17% of bipolar depressed patients. Mitchell et al27 studied 39 bipolar and unipolar patients. These authors did not specify the proportion of patients who met DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression, but slightly more bipolar depressed patients had hypersomnia and leaden paralysis. The study did not measure hyperphagia or rejection sensitivity.

An overview of the research suggests that hypersomnic and anergic symptoms are common in bipolar depressives. However, most depressed bipolar patients do not meet DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression. The proportions of unipolar and bipolar depressive episodes meeting DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression are roughly equal.

Major Depressive Episode And Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder requires two or more major depressive episodes.

Diagnostic criteria:

Depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in life activities for at least 2 weeks and at least five of the following symptoms that cause clinically significant impairment in social, work, or other important areas of functioning almost every day

1.

Depressed mood most of the day.

2.

Diminished interest or pleasure in all or most activities.

3.

Significant unintentional weight loss or gain.

4.

Insomnia or sleeping too much.

5.

Agitation or psychomotor retardation noticed by others.

6.

Fatigue or loss of energy.

7.

Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt.

8.

Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness.

9.

Recurrent thoughts of death .

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Depression is more than just feeling sad. Everyone feels low, upset, or unmotivated from time to time, but depression is much more than simply being down in the dumps. Depressive disorder is a mood disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels and behaves. Signs and symptoms of depression can range from hopelessness and fatigue, to a loss of interest in life, physical pain, and even suicidal thoughts. The DSM-5 definition of depression states that should a person present with these symptoms for a period of two weeks, the individual is experiencing a depressive episode.

There are many different types of depression, some of which are caused by events in your life, and others by chemical changes in the brain. Depression can be thought of as an umbrella term for a variety of disorders, some of which are caused by certain life events or situations, and others by chemical changes in the brain. Whatâs more, while some of the symptoms associated with the various depressive disorders overlap, there are also some key differences.

With the term âdepressionâ encompassing so many types of depression, if you think you might be depressed, you may be asking yourself: what kind of depression do I have?

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