Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors For Anxiety
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors approved by the FDA to treat anxiety disorders include:
Fluoxetine. Sold under the brand name Prozac®, fluoxetine is approved as a treatment for several anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder .
Paroxetine. Sold under the brand name Paxil®, paroxetine is approved as a treatment for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder , obsessive-compulsive disorder , social anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder .
Sertraline. Sold under the brand name Zoloft®, sertraline is approved as a treatment for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder , obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder .
Escitalopram. Sold under the brand name Lexapro®, escitalopram is approved as a treatment for generalized anxiety disorder .
Fluvoxamine. Sold under the brand name Luvox® CR, fluvoxamine is approved as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder.
Some other SSRIs, such as citalopram , arent approved by the FDA to treat anxiety disorders, but may be prescribed off-label by your healthcare provider to treat anxiety disorders if deemed safe and appropriate.
What Are Mood Stabilizers
Mood stabilizers are used primarily to treat bipolar disorder, mood swings associated with other mental disorders, and in some cases, to augment the effect of other medications used to treat depression. Lithium, which is aneffective mood stabilizer, is approved for the treatment of mania and the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. A number of cohort studies describe anti-suicide benefits of lithium for individuals on long-term maintenance. Mood stabilizers work by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain and are also sometimes used to treat:
- Schizoaffective Disorder
- Hair loss
These medications may also:
- Cause damage to the liver or pancreas, so people taking it should see their doctors regularly
- Increase testosterone levels in teenage girls and lead to a condition called polycystic ovarian syndrome
Medications for common adult health problems, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, anxiety, and depression may interact badly with anticonvulsants. In this case, a doctor can offer other medication options.
For more information about the risks and side effects for each medication, please see .
List Of Tricyclic Antidepressant Drugs For Anxiety
An older type of antidepressant called a tricyclic antidepressant is also sometimes used to treat depression. Tricyclics act on more chemicals in the brain and are more likely to cause side effects so they are not typically a first choice treatment. A list of tricyclic antidepressants used to treat anxiety includes:5
- Clomipramine approved for OCD
- Desipramine off label for panic disorder
- Doxepin off label for GAD
- Imipramine – off label for panic disorder
Another powerful, older class of antidepressants is also used to treat anxiety. These monoamine oxidase inhibitors are not first choice treatments but may be useful where other treatments have failed. A list of monoamine oxidase inhibitors used to treat anxiety includes:6
- Isocarboxazid off label for social phobia
- Phenelzine off label for panic disorders and social phobia
- Selegiline off label for social phobia
- Tranylcypromine off label for social phobia
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Other Treatments For Depression
Other treatments for depression include talking therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy .
People with moderate to severe depression are usually treated using a combination of antidepressants and CBT. Antidepressants work quickly in reducing symptoms, whereas CBT takes time to deal with causes of depression and ways of overcoming it.
Regular exercise has also been shown to be useful for those with mild depression.
Read more about alternatives to antidepressants.
Do Antidepressants Induce Euphoria
Antidepressants dont make you feel high or euphoric. They simply helprestore realistic balance to your emotional responses.
Once youve started taking antidepressants, you will suddenly notice how minor things which may have normally bothered you a little bit to a significant degree arent affecting you anymore.
This is because the chemicals in these types of medications combat hypersensitivity and anxiety. Therefore, the drugs can improve your perceptions of others and allow for a better relationship due to feeling less overly bothered by everyday social triggers.
The social anxiety triggers can be overcome with professional guidance- Click below to schedule your appointment with a mental health professional
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Antidepressant Safety And Side Effects
Although most new antidepressants, such as SSRIs and SNRIs, are well tolerated, you may experience side effects while using antidepressants to treat anxiety. Common side effects of SSRIs and SNRIs include:
Reduced sex drive
Some SSRIS and SNRIs are associated with sexual side effects, including erectile dysfunction in men. Sexual side effects can often be treated by changing medications, adjusting dosage or using erectile dysfunction medications such as Viagra® or Cialis® .
In some cases, SSRIs and SNRIs can cause severe side effects, including serotonin syndrome and an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. Weve explained these in more detail in our full guide to SSRIs.
If youre prescribed an older type of antidepressant, such as a tricyclic antidepressant or MAOI, you may experience more side effects. These medications may also cause a range of drug and food interactions, as weve explained in our full guide to MAOIs.
If you experience any side effects after you start using an antidepressant, its best to talk to your healthcare provider. If your side effects dont disappear on their own over time, your healthcare provider may recommend adjusting your dosage or switching to a different medication.
Noradrenaline And Specific Serotonergic Antidepressants
Because completely new drugs take a long time to be developed which doesnt happen very often there needs to be a way for people to find alternative options.
In these cases, a small modification of an existing drug may provide the solution. NaSSAs are a modification of SNRIS.
When needed, Noradrenaline and Specific Serotonergic Antidepressants are used for different illnesses that affect similar biological systems in the body.
Specifically, NaSSA stimulates an increased release of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in the synaptic clefts .
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Medication For Anxiety And Depression
There are many medications for anxiety and depression that are available for patients experiencing both disorders.
Danielle Plummer, Pharm.D., says that antidepressants can treat panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias. Dr. Shelton adds that the medications are also somewhat effective for OCD, and less so for PTSD, which are technically not anxiety disorders.
Dr. Plummer says that the treatment depends on which anxiety disorder a patient has. For generalized anxiety disorder , both SSRIs and SNRIs are first in line, she says. She added that the most commonly prescribed medications to treat both depression and anxiety are SSRIs and SNRIs.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a class of medications that have a broad therapeutic range. They can be used to treat some anxiety disorders, depression, or, in some cases, both at the same time. SSRIsblock the reuptake, or reabsorption, of serotonin. As a result, SSRIs increase serotonin in the brain.
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are a class of medication that are similar to SSRIs because they too inhibit reuptake and increase the level of serotonin. Unlike SSRIs, they also increase norepinephrine, which is considered a component of our brains stress response.
Doses And Duration Of Treatment
SSRIs are usually taken in tablet form. When they’re prescribed, you’ll start on the lowest possible dose thought necessary to improve your symptoms.
SSRIs usually need to be taken for 2 to 4 weeks before the benefit is felt. You may experience mild side effects early on, but it’s important that you don’t stop taking the medicine. These effects will usually wear off quickly.
If you take an SSRI for 4 to 6 weeks without feeling any benefit, speak to your GP or mental health specialist. They may recommend increasing your dose or trying an alternative antidepressant.
A course of treatment usually continues for at least 6 months after you feel better, although longer courses are sometimes recommended and some people with recurrent problems may be advised to take them indefinitely.
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How Do I Stop Taking Antidepressants
You should always stop taking antidepressants slowly, and under a doctorâs supervision. Stopping most antidepressants suddenly can result in unpleasant symptoms such as dizziness, nausea or feeling edgy.
Itâs important to work closely with a doctor to lower the dose, stop or switch antidepressant medicines.
Do I Need This Treatment
If you are distressed for more than two weeks by feelings of sadness, despair and hopelessness, or by excessive worry that is hard to control, see a doctor for an assessment of your symptoms and situation and to discuss treatment and support options. Early treatment can help to ensure treatment success.
Be sure your doctor knows if you have had times where you felt a reduced need for sleep in combination with an unusual amount of energy, or where your mood changed from feeling depressed to feeling unusually happy or irritable. Mood stabilizer medications may be more suited to your needs, either on their own or in combination with antidepressants. Antidepressants alone can cause some people to switch from depression into mania.
Medications are only one way of treating depression and anxiety. Talk therapies, such as interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy, can be just as effective. Peer support, school and job counselling, and housing and employment supports can also help to deal with problems that may trigger or worsen depression or anxiety.
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List Of Anxiety Medications Anti
A list of anxiety medications includes several types of medication including antidepressants, antipsychotics, beta blockers and benzodiazepines. The antianxiety pills list listed below includes all drugs approved by the FDA for the treatment of anxiety disorders as well as those typically recommended off-label.
Just one drug is of the antianxiety medication class: Buspirone . This drug is approved for anxiety disorders .
How Is Depression Diagnosed
If your mood has been low for a while and you are having difficulty coping with day to day activities, talk to your doctor or a trusted professional. Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and your medical history and may ask you to complete a questionnaire that may help to diagnose depression or refer you to a psychiatrist.
You can also call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline at 1-800-273-8255, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, or have an online chat . All information is confidential and free.
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Other Things To Be Aware Of
To take your medication safely:
- Tell your doctor if you are taking other medications.
- Ask your doctor if your antidepressant is affected by food.
- Store your antidepressants in a box, away from children in a cool, dry place.
- Donât share your antidepressants with other people.
- Take the recommended dose.
- Continue to take medication even when you are feeling better until you have discussed stopping with your doctor.
- Cut down or stop alcohol consumption, as this can reduce the benefits of antidepressants and in some cases can be very dangerous.
Foods That Help Or Hurt Anxiety
There are several types of medications used to treat anxiety disorders.
Within each of these categories, there are subgroups of drugs that work differently and have their own benefits, risks, and possible side effects.
Theyre supereffective in treating anxiety disorders, says Beth Salcedo, MD, the medical director of the Ross Center for Anxiety & Related Disorders and a past board president of the Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Its not known exactly how SSRIs work on serotonin to alleviate anxiety, says Dr. Salcedo, but what is known is that theyre not addictive like benzodiazepines are .
Its important to follow your doctors instructions when taking any prescription drug. Talk to your doctor if youre concerned about the side effects of a medication, or if the drug youre taking doesn’t seem to be alleviating your symptoms.
Other antidepressants that may be prescribed for anxiety include:
- Wellbutrin, Zyban, Aplenzin, Budeprion, or Buproban
- Tricyclic antidepressants, such as Amitid, Amitril, Elavil, or Endep Aventyl, Pamelor or Tofranil
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What Are Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors What Are The Side Effects
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs were the first class of antidepressants to be developed. They fell out of favor because of concerns about interactions with certain foods and numerous drug interactions. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.
Monoamine oxidase also breaks down tyramine, a chemical present in aged cheese, wines, and other aged foods. Since MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase, they decrease the breakdown of tyramine from ingested food, increasing the level of tyramine in the body. Excessive tyramine can elevate blood pressure and cause a hypertensive crisis. Patients treated with MAOIs should adhere to recommended dietary modifications that reduce the intake of tyramine. Interestingly, the 6 mg/24 hour dose of selegiline transdermal system does not require dietary restrictions because at this dose EMSAM does not substantially inhibit tyramine. Higher selegiline transdermal system doses require dietary restrictions.
What are the side effects of MAOIs?
Symptoms of hypertensive crises include
Other side effects and adverse events of MAOIs include:
Sexual side effects may diminish with time or a reduction in dose.
Anxiety And Depression Medication List
The difficulties of modern life often are reflected in the high prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly anxiety disorders and major depressive disorders. The Anxiety and Depression Association of America states that an estimated 40 million adults suffer from one of the eight disorders within the anxiety spectrum. In addition, depression impacts approximately 16 million, about 6.7% of the U.S. adult population.
These statistics translate to a vast number of the American population reliant on psychotropic medications. In fact, one in ten adults now take an antidepressant regularly, with women aged 40-60 taking them at a rate of one in four. While these medications do help manage symptoms for anxiety and depression in about half of the patients prescribed them, the drugs are not effective in reducing symptoms in the remaining 50%. The following is a list of the most popular anxiety and depression medications.
Anxiety and Depression Medications List and their Side Effects
Anxiety. Medications that treat anxiety fall into four categories:
Depression. Medications that treat depression fall into nine categories:
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Can I Have Depression And Anxiety At The Same Time
Depression and anxiety are two different mental health disorders that are often comorbid. Meaning, they occur at the same time.
Depression is a mental disorder that is commonly identified with intense feelings of hopelessness, despair, worthlessness, and overwhelming sadness. Around 10% of Americans experience major depression , according to theCleveland Clinic. While most people will experience feelings of sadness at some point, with depression, these feelings are prolongedlasting two weeks or moreand severe enough to impact daily life.
Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive worry, nervousness, or fear that impacts everyday functioning. Without treatment, anxiety can get worse over time. There are a number of anxiety disorders, with their own set of unique symptoms.
About 2% of people in the U.S. have generalized anxiety disorder . According to Richard Shelton, MD, a psychiatrist and the vice chair of research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, GAD symptoms include persistent fear and worry that is often difficult to control. Other anxiety disorders include:
- Panic disorder
- Posttraumatic stress disorder
Depression and anxiety have the following symptoms in common: feelings of despair like nothing good will ever happen, physical symptoms , and exhaustion.
With All These Options How Can You Choose
Your doctor can recommend the best medication to help control your anxiety. There are different types of anxiety disorders, so different medications may be better choices for your type. Your doctor will also consider your other health conditions and medications, and whether you have a family history of responding better to a certain medication. Since you might be taking medication long-term, you may want to factor in affordability.
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List Of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Drugs For Anxiety
Another effective, older class of antidepressants is likewise used to treat anxiety. These monoamine oxidase inhibitors are not first choice treatments however may work where other treatments have failed. A list of monoamine oxidase inhibitors used to treat anxiety consists of:
- Isocarboxazid off label for social phobia
- Phenelzine off label for panic attack and social phobia
- Selegiline off label for social phobia
- Tranylcypromine off label for social phobia
How Does Anxiety Affect Mental Health
Anxiety can affect mental health in a number of ways. It can lead to panic attacks, which are episodes of intense fear and anxiety that can last for several minutes or hours. Anxiety can also cause people to feel constantly on edge and stressed out. This can lead to problems such as insomnia, depression, and addiction.
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Antidepressants
Some people may experience sexual side effects such as decreased libido or delayed or less powerful orgasm, sleepiness, and weight gain.
Others may experience common side effects such as:
- Dry mouth
It takes about a week for most of the initial side effects to subside.
Contact your doctor if you experience side effects for a long time. You can ask your clinician for assistance in finding the right drug for you from among the many choices.
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