Short Form Health Survey
As part of the Medical Outcomes Study , a multi-year, multi-site study that investigated variations in patient outcomes, the RAND Corporation developed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey as a set of easily administered quality-of-life measures. These measures rely on patient self-reports and are widely used for routine monitoring and assessment of care outcomes in the adult population. The survey can be completed in 10 minutes or less.
Ware, J.E., & Sherbourne, C.D. . The MOS 36-item short-form health survey : I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30, 473-483.
McHorney, C.A., Ware Jr, J.E., Lu, J.R., & Sherbourne, C.D. . The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey : III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Medical Care, 32, 40-66. Retrieved from
Suicide Warning Signs To Watch For
- Talking or joking about committing suicide
- Saying things like, Id be better off dead,I wish I could disappear forever, or Theres no way out
- Speaking positively about death or romanticizing dying
- Writing stories and poems about death, dying, or suicide
- Engaging in reckless behavior or having a lot of accidents resulting in injury
- Giving away prized possessions
- Saying goodbye to friends and family as if for the last time
- Seeking out weapons, pills, or other ways to kill themselves
Get help for a suicidal teen
If you suspect that a teenager is suicidal, take immediate action! For 24-hour suicide prevention and support in the U.S., call the 988 Suicide and Crisis Lifeline at 988. To find a suicide helpline outside the U.S., visit IASP or Suicide.org.
To learn more about suicide risk factors, warning signs, and what to do in a crisis, read Suicide Prevention.
Symptoms Of Teen Depression Involve:
- Constantly feeling sad or hopeless.
- Feeling irritable.
- Withdraw from friends and family.
- Thoughts of death or suicide.
The NIMH reports that 3.2 million teens ages 12-17 have had at least one depressive episode in their young lives. Among girls, 20% have had depression. Seventy-one percent of depressed teens will experience severe impairment.
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What Are The Warning Signs For Teen Suicide
Teen suicide is a serious problem. Adolescent suicide is the second leading cause of death, following accidents, among youth and young adults in the U.S. It is estimated that 500,000 teens attempt suicide every year with 5,000 succeeding. These are epidemic numbers.
Family difficulties, the loss of a loved one, or perceived failures at school or in relationships can all lead to negative feelings and depression. And teen depression often makes problems seem overwhelming and the associated pain unbearable. Suicide is an act of desperation and teen depression is often the root cause.
Warning signs of suicide with teen depression include:
- Expressing hopelessness for the future
- Giving up on one’s self, talking as if no one else cares
- Preparing for death, giving away favorite possessions, writing goodbye letters, or making a will
- Starting to use or abuse drugs or alcohol to aid sleep or for relief from their mental anguish
- Defiant behavior
- Acting violently
- Threatening to kill one’s self
If your teenager displays any of these behaviors, you should seek help from a mental health professional immediately. Or you can call a suicide hotline for help.
Depression carries a high risk of suicide. Anybody who expresses suicidal thoughts or intentions should be taken very, very seriously. Do not hesitate to call your local suicide hotline immediately. Call 1-800-SUICIDE or 1-800-273-TALK .
Medications For Depression Treatment
Antidepressants are drugs used to treat depression and depressive symptoms. These medications can help the way the brain metabolizes chemicals that control mood or stress. There are many types of antidepressants. Doctors and patients should review all possible side effects and weigh the risks before prescribing any medications.
Doctors often begin treatment by prescribing an SSRI. These medicines are considered safer than other depression drugs. SSRIs also cause less side effects than other antidepressants. SSRIs your doctor may prescribe are:
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Residential Psychiatric Treatment For Teen Depression
Residential treatment is the right level of care for teens that have not had relief from depression through outpatient care. These teens may see their mental health getting worse. They may have impaired functioning, social problems, poor grades, truancy, and increased social withdrawal. The residential mental health program offers more tailored treatment. This allows the teen to engage more deeply in their treatment and focus on getting better.
These teen treatment programs create highly customized plans to help the teen overcome depressive disorder. Daily activities include:
- Talk therapy sessions.
- Medication management.
- Medical detox, if needed.
Teens who struggle with depression will find this setting provides a chance to take a break from their daily life. This way they can devote their energy and time to treatment. For teens with severe depression, the residential program offers a comprehensive approach to reclaiming wellness.
Tip : Make Physical Health A Priority
Physical and mental health are inextricably connected. Depression is exacerbated by inactivity, inadequate sleep, and poor nutrition. Unfortunately, teens are known for their unhealthy habits: staying up late, eating junk food, and spending hours on their phones and devices. But as a parent, you can combat these behaviors by establishing a healthy, supportive home environment.
Get your teen moving!Exercise is absolutely essential to mental health, so get your teen activewhatever it takes. Ideally, teens should be getting at least an hour of physical activity a day, but it neednt be boring or miserable. Think outside the box: walking the dog, dancing, shooting hoops, going for a hike, riding bikes, skateboardingas long as theyre moving, its beneficial.
Set limits on screen time. Teens often go online to escape their problems, but when screen time goes up, physical activity and face time with friends goes down. Both are a recipe for worsening symptoms. Gently encourage your teen to take an occasional vacation from their devices or engage in family activities that dont involve screen time. You can also set an example by reducing your own time spent online.
Encourage plenty of sleep.Teens need more sleep than adults to function optimallyup to 9-10 hours per night. Make sure your teen isnt staying up until all hours at the expense of much-needed, mood-supporting rest.
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Bni Treatment Centers Residential Treatment For Teens
BNI Treatment Center is an L.A.-based residential mental health program for teens in distress. At BNI Treatment the doctors provide in depth testing for depression and other mental health conditions specializing in teen psychiatric care. After a thorough assessment, a tailored treatment plan is designed. If your teen answered five or more questions yes on the depression test for teens, reach out to BNI today at 522-1504.
I Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Anxiety: The evidence-based psychological treatment for anxiety disorders is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy , a brief, directive therapy to promote realistic and adaptive thinking patterns and build behavioural competence through graduated exposure.2-7
Depression: CBT is also considered effective for child and adolescent depression.2,3
- Available through Child and Youth Mental Health teams or private specialists trained in CBT.
- Self-help materials based on CBT at the Anxiety Disorder Association of BC 525-7566 or website with videos at: )
- Self-help materials designed to help depressed adolescents are available through the Ministry of Children and Family Development Child and Youth Mental Health website and the Knowledge Network tool
There is evidence of benefit using Interpersonal Psychotherapy but it is not as strong as for CBT.8 IPT is similar to CBT but has more focus on interpersonal problem solving. There are fewer professionals trained in IPT treatment.
- Available at some Child and Youth Mental Health teams or through some private specialists trained in IPT
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Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
USPSTF recommends screening for depression in adolescents aged 12 to 18 years . Based on the available evidence, there is a moderate net benefit. Accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and appropriate follow-up are emphasized. The evidence for screening depression in children aged 11 years or less is insufficient . Healthcare practitioners should do appropriate screening and early interventions for better outcomes.
Most Common Types Of Depression
Everyone feels sad at times. Sometimes, when people say Im depressed, what they actually mean is that they are feeling sad or blue. There are major differences between feeling sad and having depression.
Major depression disorder is one of the most common mental health disorders in the United States. In some cases, MDD can be seriously disabling and interfere with or limit the ability to function in daily life.
Clinical depression is a common, serious mood disorder. It affects how people feel, think, and deal with daily life. Among other symptoms, depression can affect sleep, eating habits, and work-life. Depression is usually diagnosed as clinical depression these symptoms occur for at least two weeks.
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How To Help A Teen With Depression
People who are experiencing depression often do not want to seek help. they might beg, get upset with you, or become violent when you suggest it. Even if your concerns are met with such resistance, seeking help is crucial. Working with a mental health professional and your family doctor is the best beginning strategy for a teen suffering from depression.
Support your teen’s daily routines, such as taking medications and eating well. Encourage healthy self-help strategies, and make sure your home is a safe, comforting place.
If your teen is diagnosed with depression, educate yourself about this condition so you can understand what your teen is going through. Be available to listen, and encourage your teen to talk about anything that’s bothering them.
What Is Teen Depression
The mental and emotional disorder known as teen depression is no different medically from adult depression. However, symptoms in teens may manifest themselves in different ways than in adults.
This may be because teens face different social and developmental challenges, such as peer pressure, changing hormone levels, and developing bodies.
Depression can be associated with high levels of stress, anxiety, and in the most serious scenarios suicide. It can also affect these aspects of a teens life:
- personal life
- school life
- family life
This can lead to social isolation and other problems.
Depression isnt a condition people can snap out of or simply cheer up from. Its a real medical condition that can affect a persons life in every manner if its not treated properly.
According to the , around 3.2 million Americans between 12 and 17 years old had at least one major depressive episode in 2017. They represent 13.3 percent of 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States.
Females were around three times as likely as males to report a depressive episode.
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Why Is My Child Depressed
Things that increase the risk of depression in children include:
- family difficulties
- physical, emotional or sexual abuse
- a family history of depression or other mental health problems
Sometimes depression is triggered by 1 difficult event, such as parents separating, a bereavement or problems with school or other children.
Often it’s caused by a mixture of things. For example, your child may have a tendency to get depression and also experienced some difficult life events.
Myth #: You Can Just Snap Out Of It
Depression is a medical condition. Just like other illnesses, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, you cannot treat it by telling yourself to snap out of it.24 Depression is not about any one thing for most people. People with depression try to shame or criticize themselves out of it, which can be harmful. Remind yourself that depression is an illness. Work on your treatment plan instead. Be patient!
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When To Be Concerned
All teens develop at slightly different rates. While some 14-year-olds will look and act more like adults, others may still be quite child-like. Usually, theres no cause for concern as kids will all catch up to one another in the near future.
If you are concerned about your teens immaturity, its important to talk to your childs healthcare provider. They can rule out any physical or mental health issues and may refer your child to a specialist if necessary.
Eating disorders can develop during the teen years as well, Dr. Segura says. Keep an eye on your teens eating habits. Skipping meals, purging, and crash diets are red flags that could signal your teen needs to see a mental health professional.
The Symptoms Of Depression
The artwork depicts hand-drawn, shaded mountains in black and white, to the left is a dark cloud with rain falling from it, behind the mountains is a yellow sun rising up from behind the mountains. In front of the mountains is a scroll that reads: ‘these feelings are temporary and won’t last forever.’
Depression affects different people in different ways. Symptoms can include:
- not wanting to do things that you previously enjoyed
- avoiding friends or social situations
- sleeping more or less than normal
- eating more or less than normal
- feeling irritable, upset, miserable or lonely
- being self-critical
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Medication Comes With Risks
Antidepressants were designed and tested on adults, so their impact on young, developing brains is not yet fully understood. Some researchers are concerned that exposure to drugs such as Prozac may interfere with normal brain developmentparticularly the way the brain manages stress and regulates emotion.
Antidepressants also come with risks and side effects of their own, including a number of safety concerns specific to children and young adults. They are also known to increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in some teenagers and young adults. Teens with bipolar disorder, a family history of bipolar disorder, or a history of previous suicide attempts are particularly vulnerable.
The risk of suicide is highest during the first two months of antidepressant treatment. Teenagers on antidepressants should be closely monitored for any sign that the depression is getting worse.
Teens on antidepressants: Red flags to watch out for
Does Depression Affect Children
Depression can affect people of any age, including children. Although children naturally have mood swings as they grow and develop, depression is different. The disorder can affect how children interact with friends and family. It may prevent them from enjoying school, sports, hobbies or other normal childhood activities.
In children, depression and anxiety often go hand in hand. Anxiety is a medical condition that causes feelings of fear, panic or worry about everyday situations. Sometimes, depression or anxiety in children gets chalked up to growing pains. But if you have any concerns about behavioral or mental health, talk to a healthcare provider.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Teen Depression
Often, kids with teen depression will have a noticeable change in their thinking and behavior. The most common symptom of depression is sadness for no apparent reason most of the time. They may have no motivation and even become withdrawn, closing their bedroom door after school and staying in their room for hours.
Kids with teen depression may sleep excessively, have a change in eating habits, and may even exhibit criminal behaviors such as DUI or shoplifting. Here are more signs of depression in adolescents even though they may or may not show all signs:
For in-depth information, see WebMD’s Symptoms of Depression.
If You Think Your Child Is Depressed
If you think your child may be depressed, it’s important to talk to them. Try to find out what’s troubling them and how they’re feeling.
See some tips on talking to younger children about their feelings and talking to teenagers.
Whatever is causing the problem, take it seriously. It may not seem like a big deal to you, but it could be a major problem for your child.
If your child does not want to talk to you, let them know that you’re concerned about them and that you’re there if they need you.
Encourage them to talk to someone else they trust, such as another family member, a friend or someone at school.
It may be helpful for you to talk to other people who know your child, including their other parent.
You could also contact their school to ask if the staff have any concerns.
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Medication Dosing And Follow
Initiation and Continuation: Pick target symptoms to self-monitor and document weekly or download from ). Ask families and caregivers to help by daily monitoring the child or youth for worsening symptoms or any unusual changes or behaviours, particularly any emergence of suicidality. Discuss an emergency plan as well as planned follow-up.
General Dosing Suggestions: Start with ¼ or ½ of the adult dose and wait at least one week to increase dosages. For adolescents, the maximum dose can be similar to adults, while the dose is less than the adult dose for children.19
- Anxiety: Children who are anxious are sensitive to physical sensations. Provide support, reassurance and monitor frequently. Generalized anxiety disorder may respond at lower doses ,20 OCD generally start low and increase slowly. Dosing example: 10 mg daily fluoxetine for an adolescent. For an anxious 6 year old, start with 5 mg daily and use increments of 5 mg every two weeks if needed.
- Depression: The response often requires full doses for youth and the response to medication is slower. Example: start the first week with 10 mg daily of fluoxetine and increase to 20 mg daily as soon as tolerated. Increase again up 30 mg daily if not improved after 6 weeks to a maximum of 40 mg daily. If not responding after 10-12 weeks, refer to specialist.
Continuation: For both anxiety and depression the usual length of treatment is 6-12 months before a trial of tapering.