Brain Structure And Function
In addition to the psychosocial models described above, there are a number of shared biological changes that occur in diabetes and depression that may increase the risk of the other condition . These mechanisms provide a novel perspective in considering the association between depression and diabetes by focusing more on common pathogenic mechanisms rather than focusing on the direction of association.
It is well recognized that both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia can have major effects on brain function in areas of cognition and mood. MRI scanning of the brains of people with type 1 diabetes has shown that prefrontal glutamate-glutamine-gamma-aminobutyric acid levels are higher than in healthy control subjects, and these levels correlate with mild depressive symptoms . Furthermore, animal models have shown that diabetes negatively affects hippocampal integrity and neurogenesis, which may interact with other aspects of neuroplasticity and contribute to mood symptoms in diabetes . In humans, hippocampal neurogenesis can be indirectly assessed via MRI and there is hippocampal atrophy in diabetes .
Epidemiology Of Diabetes And Depression
Significant depressive symptoms affect approximately 1 in 4 adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, whereas a formal diagnosis of depressive disorders is made in approximately 10 %15 % of people with diabetes . The prevalence estimates vary widely because of methodological differences in the definition of depression. In some studies, the term depression means self-reported high depressive symptom scores, whereas in others it reflects a formal diagnosis by psychiatric interview. In addition, the construct of diabetes-related distress captures the emotional distress associated with diabetes self-management, social support, and health care . This construct has been found to be modestly correlated with depressive symptoms with approximately 30 % overlapping variance but remains distinct from depression in its association with adherence and glycemic control .
There have been few studies of depression in children and adolescents but these suggest that rates of depression are also elevated in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes with prevalence rates ranging from 9 %26 % .
Diabetes And Mental Health
Is mental health pretty low on your list of priorities for managing diabetes? This may change your mind.Mental health affects so many aspects of daily lifehow you think and feel, handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. You can see how having a mental health problem could make it harder to stick to your diabetes care plan.
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Diagnosing Depression In People With Diabetes
If youre experiencing symptoms of depression, you should schedule an appointment with your doctor. They can determine whether your symptoms are the result of poor diabetes management, depression, or tied to another health concern.
To make a diagnosis, your doctor will first assess your medical profile. If you have a family history of depression, be sure to let your doctor know at this time.
Your doctor will then conduct a psychological evaluation to learn more about your symptoms, thoughts, behaviors, and other related factors.
They may also perform a physical exam. In some cases, your doctor may do a blood test to rule out other underlying medical concerns, such as problems with your thyroid.
Depression is typically treated through a combination of medication and therapy. Certain lifestyle changes may also help relieve your symptoms and promote overall wellness.
Lifestyle Factors And Adherence
Lifestyle factors are hypothesized to play a role in priming or reinforcing the comorbidity of depression and diabetes. For example, people with depression are more likely to be sedentary and eat diets that are rich in saturated fats and refined sugars while avoiding fruit and vegetables, which may contribute to the increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes .
Nonadherence to self-care management in those already diagnosed with diabetes and experiencing depressive symptoms has also been found . A meta-analysis of 47 independent samples found that depression was significantly associated with nonadherence to diabetes treatment recommendations including missed medical appointments, diet, exercise, medication use, glucose monitoring, and foot care . In a primary care study of 879 people with type 2 diabetes, a 1-point increase in depressive symptoms scores was found to result in a 10 % increased risk of nonadherence to fruit and vegetable intake and foot care . This suggests the possibility that there may be a mutually-reinforcing phenomenon that poorer adherence to self-care may increase blood glucose, which in turn may contribute to depressive symptoms and consequently contribute to decreased adherence to self-care behaviors.
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Can Depression Cause High Blood Pressure
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High blood pressure readings can be divided into the following levels Borderline to moderate high blood pressure is generally without symptoms. Some of the important lifestyle factors that may cause high blood pressure include: coffee consumption, alcohol intake, lack of exercise, stress, and.
8 Common Causes of High Blood Pressure, According to Doctors. Plus, exactly what you can do to While normal blood pressure is necessary for survival, high blood pressure is dangerous Not to mention, chronic loneliness is associated with depression, and research has shown a correlation.
Major Depressive Disorder Can Often be Treated for Better Quality of Life. If you increase specific deficiencies because of the digestive tract condition referred to as celiac ailment, you could gain from taking dietary supplements of vitamins A, D in addition to K, calcium, iron, folic acid, magnesium, and zinc, keeps in thoughts the University of Michigan Health System.
A leading gynaecologist tells Abi Jackson about the importance of empowering women experiencing perimenopause symptoms.
Rates Of Type 2 Diabetes Are Higher In People With One Of Various Common Psychiatric Disorders Science Daily
Rates of type 2 diabetes are higher in people with one of various common psychiatric disorders.
Its normal to feel grief or despair when these things happen. Mercy therapists recognize this and also can assist you or an enjoyed one obtain the right help, support or therapy. It is essential to review symptoms with your physician due to the fact that specific medical can high blood sugar cause depression problems can imitate symptoms of depression. Your medical professional will certainly do an examination to eliminate basic clinical causes. SD refers to temporary feelings of depression that go along with a terrible or difficult life occasion.
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Tests Of Information Processing
The results of these tests are summarized in . During acute hyperglycemia, performance was significantly impaired in the Trail Making B, Digit Symbol, and Four-Choice Reaction Time tests. Performance in the Simple Reaction Time test was not significantly impaired during hyperglycemia. The coefficient of variation for the Simple and Four-Choice Reaction Time tests was not significantly different between the euglycemia and hyperglycemia conditions.
How To Cope With Anxiety
When it comes to coping with anxiety, its important to find effective ways to deal with stress. For some, a regular meditation practice helps with stress management.
According to the Mayo Clinic, finding ways to better manage your time, practicing good sleep , eating balanced meals, and exercising are other ways to find relief, too. You want to calm the body down so it can better deal with stress day to day, Bereolos says.
Also, a diabetes or anxiety support group can help you cope with anxiety, especially if you think youre the only one experiencing it. It can help to rationalize your thinking, which in essence helps to treat the anxiety and depression going on, Bereolos says.
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Insulin Resistance Tied To Twofold Risk Of Depression
High triglycerides, elevated blood glucose levels, and a large waist circumference were predictive of a depression diagnosis in people without any history of mood disorders. The cause of the link needs more study.
People with insulin resistance, long seen as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, may also have an increased risk of developing major depressive disorder, a new study suggests.
If youre insulin-resistant, your risk of developing major depressive disorder is double that of someone whos not insulin-resistant, even if youve never experienced depression before, says Natalie Rasgon, MD, PhD, a coauthor of the study and a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Stanford University School of Medicine in California.
The study was published in September 2021 in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Researchers examined data on 601 healthy adults who had tests for three proxies of insulin resistance: blood sugar levels, waist circumference, and levels of fats in the blood known as triglycerides that raise the risk of heart disease. Nearly all the participants were white, of Northern European ancestry, and were 41 years old at the start of the study. Three-fifths of them were women, and three-fourths of them were married.
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What Is An Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder is a psychological condition characterised by persistent and excessive anxiety and worry. This is also known as clinical anxiety. The worry is accompanied by a variety of symptoms:
In contrast to non-clinical anxiety, which is a normal response to a perceived threat or stressful situation, an anxiety disorder is problematic as it affects day-to-day functioning and causes significant distress. It cannot be attributed to the effects of a substance , a medical condition , or another mental health problem .
Anxiety disorders can take many forms, including:
- generalised anxiety disorder: intense excessive and daily worries about multiple situations
- social anxiety disorder: intense excessive fear of being scrutinised by other people, resulting in avoidance of social situations
- panic disorder: recurrent, unpredictable, and severe panic attacks
- specific phobia: intense irrational fear of specific everyday objects or situations .
- restlessness or feeling on edge
- being easily fatigued
- muscle tension
- sleep disturbance
A subthreshold anxiety disorder is characterised by the presence of elevated anxiety symptoms that do not meet the full diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder. Although less severe, such symptoms are typically persistent, can also cause significant burden and impairment, and deserve attention in clinical practice.
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Coping With Depression And Diabetes
If you have any of the symptoms of depression for longer than two weeks, its really important that you go and see your healthcare professional. Its always going to be a hard thing to do, but asking for help and talking about your problems with someone can be really helpful.
There are different ways that people deal with depression. Your doctor may advise you to talk to a professional, recommend medication or point you towards Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. You can decide the best steps together.
“I’d set myself unrealistic targets and was getting frustrated with the highs and lows of normal life with diabetes, which I was seeing as failures. I found it very helpful to start to log events of hypers and hypos. I recorded the reason for these where possible along side strategies to overcome the problem another time, and to record whether this event was in my control, beyond my control or a combination of the two. It may sound simple, but I was amazed at how many events I was beating myself up for which were beyond my control.”
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Interestingly, research suggests anxiety may be tied to type 2 diabetes risk. According to a September 2016 study published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, which measured levels of blood glucose and IL-6, a protein in the body that stimulates immune response and healing, found that people with with low inhibition or attention control were more likely to have type 2 diabetes.
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Depression: More Than Just A Bad Mood
Depression is a medical illness that causes feelings of sadness and often a loss of interest in activities you used to enjoy. It can get in the way of how well you function at work and home, including taking care of your diabetes. When you arent able to manage your diabetes well, your risk goes up for diabetes complications like heart disease and nerve damage.
People with diabetes are 2 to 3 times more likely to have depression than people without diabetes. Only 25% to 50% of people with diabetes who have depression get diagnosed and treated. But treatmenttherapy, medicine, or bothis usually very effective. And without treatment, depression often gets worse, not better.
Symptoms of depression can be mild to severe, and include:
- Feeling sad or empty
- Losing interest in favorite activities
- Overeating or not wanting to eat at all
- Not being able to sleep or sleeping too much
- Having trouble concentrating or making decisions
- Feeling very tired
- Feeling hopeless, irritable, anxious, or guilty
- Having aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems
- Having thoughts of suicide or death
If you think you might have depression, get in touch with your doctor right away for help getting treatment. The earlier depression is treated, the better for you, your quality of life, and your diabetes.
Its The Type Of Carb Not The Quantity That Counts
Reducing sugar doesnt mean you need to reduce carbs. One study looked at the quantity and quality of carbs consumed by nearly 70,000 women who had completed menopause. Researchers applied a glycemic index score to each food they analyzed. Foods with high GI scores, which raise blood sugar levels more, are often made from simple carbs and filled with simple sugars. The results showed that women who ate high-GI foods had a higher risk of depression than people who ate lower-GI foods. Women who ate a higher amount of lower-GI foods, such as vegetables and non-juiced fruit, had a lower risk for depression.
The results mean that carbohydrates in general arent the cause for depression and other mental health disorders. Instead, its the quality of the carbs you eat that can impact your depression risk.
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A Striking Resemblance Exists Between Hypoglycemia And Anxiety Attacks
Anxiety and panic attack symptoms mimic those of hypoglycemia: A panic attack is a sudden feeling of intense fear or discomfort that strikes repeatedly without warning, while hypoglycemia is a medical event in which blood sugar falls below normal. Although the two are vastly different phenomena, the signs and symptoms of each resemble one another.
According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, a panic attack reaches a peak within minutes and includes at least four of the following symptoms:
- Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate
- Nightmares or crying out during sleep
Whats frightening is that hypoglycemia can be a dangerous, even life-threatening condition if not promptly treated. And unfortunately, it is nearly impossible to detect hypoglycemia without using a glucometer. So if suspicious if either, implement the 15-15 rule to help treat hypoglycemia and prevent such serious consequences.
The 15-15 Rule to Treat Hypoglycemia
Consume 15 grams of carbohydrate to raise your blood glucose and check it after 15 minutes. If its still below 70 mg/dL, have another 15 gram serving. The following are examples of 15 grams of carb:
Type 1 Diabetes And Anxiety
Type 1 diabetes, which relies on the constant micromanagement of insulin, can lead to the development of anxiety due to a generalized fear of complications, imperfect blood sugar levels, mild or severe low blood sugars, and the constant effort for control.
In life with type 1 diabetes, the more variables a patient is able to control, the more he or she is presumably able to manage their blood sugar levels. Food, activity, hormones, stress, , blood sugar fluctuations during work or school or parenting, and even something as simple as grocery shopping, all have a major and immediate impact on blood sugar levels.
When one or many of these variables are out of ones control which is likely often anxiety can easily develop.
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How To Lower High Blood Sugar
With careful monitoring and control of your blood sugar levels, you can live a healthy life. There are a number of ways you can lower and prevent high blood sugar.
?Learn to count carbohydrates: When you count carbs or keep track of what you are eating, you can control your blood sugar more efficiently. Set a maximum amount you can have each day for your meal,s and keep track to make sure you do not go past the limit. This helps to stabilize blood sugar and prevent dangerous spikes. Portion control is important too, so make sure your meals are not too large, as these can cause temporary spikes.
?Try meal planning: To help keep track of your carbohydrate intake, start planning your meals. Based on the amount of carbohydrates you can have, plan meals accordingly, so you do not risk going above the set limit. When your meals are planned, you also avoid eating out or getting convenience food, which contains more sugar and fat, and will negatively affect your blood sugar.
?Start a weight loss program: Obesity contributes to diabetes and impairs your bodys ability to process energy efficiently. Losing weight helps your body to use insulin more efficiently, and it reduces fat storage, which can trigger inflammation in the body.
What Are The Impacts Of Atypical Depression
Significantly higher numbers and densities of TPH immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal raphe centers of alcohol-dependent, depressed self-destruction victims compared to controls have actually been reported. A lacking or damaged serotonin system appears to associate with depressive problems, as confirmed by studies on the serotonin receptor, TPH, and also 5-HTT. Major depressive disorder is considered to be a scientifically heterogeneous condition and also the diagnosis is based on an individual can high blood sugar cause depressions signs and symptoms, out any kind of laboratory tests. MDD arises from several genetic elements interacting with lots of numerous environmental aspects, such as childhood hardship and also many life stressful events. Your doctor may prescribe you an SSRI or MAOI antidepressant. These types of antidepressants are generally the most reliable at treating atypical depression.
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