% Of Us Adults Are Using Common Meds They Don’t Realise Could Cause Depression
Most prescription medications come with such a long list of potential side-effects that many patients may have no idea what they are getting themselves into.
But when the potential consequences include depression and suicide, ignorance is decidedly not bliss.
A new study has found that between 2005 and 2014, 37.2 percent of US adults may have been unknowingly using common medications that can cause depression as a side-effect.
“Many may be surprised to learn that their medications, despite having nothing to do with mood or anxiety or any other condition normally associated with depression, can increase their risk of experiencing depressive symptoms, and may lead to a depression diagnosis,” said lead author Dima Qato, an assistant professor at the University of Illinois.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey examined more than 26,000 Americans over the age of 18, excluding those who already use antidepressants.
The findings revealed that more than 200 commonly used prescription drugs list depression or even suicide as potential consequences. These popular medications include drugs like hormonal birth control medication, blood pressure medication, antacids and painkillers.
Many of these medications are available over the counter and their warning labels do not list comprehensive information on their potential adverse effects.
To make matters worse, when these drugs are used together , they can exacerbate the prevalence of depression.
Drugs Types That May Cause Depression
The following kinds of medications are among those that may lead to depression:
1. Beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors : metoprolol, atenolol, enalapril, and quinapril.
2. Antidepressants: sertraline , citalopram , bupropion , and amitriptyline.
3. Anti-anxiety drugs: alprazolam , clonazepam , diazepam , and lorazepam , as well as the sedative zolpidem .
4. Opioids: hydrocodone combination meds and tramadol .
5. Corticosteroids: prednisone and others.
6. Over-the-counter proton pump inhibitors: omeprazole and esomeprazole , as well as the antacids ranitidine and famotidine .
7. Allergy and asthma medications: over-the-counter cetirizine and the prescription drug montelukast .
8. Anticonvulsants: gabapentin and topiramate .
9. Hormones: estradiol and finasteride .
If You Feel Better Can You Stop Taking Antidepressants
Once you and your provider have determined it is safe for you to stop taking your medicine altogether, you should continue to be monitored during periodic follow-up appointments to detect any signs of depression returning.
Long-term treatment with antidepressant medicine may be recommended to prevent further episodes of depression in people who have already had two or more episodes of major depression. A history of depression in ones family is another factor that supports long-term treatment.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/24/2019.
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Medications That May Cause Depression
Many common medications can affect your moods and thoughts, often by affecting your levels of certain hormones or brain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
In some cases, using certain types of medication may increase your risk of developing clinical depression. Some medications can even contribute to severe depression and/or an increased risk of suicide.
According to research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, as many as 37.2 percent of US adults report using medications that are linked to depression.
Below, weve listed 10 classes of medication below that can cause or contribute to depression, with detailed information on how each type of medication works, what its used to treat and the effects it may have on your moods and behavior.
Do I Need This Treatment
If you are distressed for more than two weeks by feelings of sadness, despair and hopelessness, or by excessive worry that is hard to control, see a doctor for an assessment of your symptoms and situation and to discuss treatment and support options. Early treatment can help to ensure treatment success.
Be sure your doctor knows if you have had times where you felt a reduced need for sleep in combination with an unusual amount of energy, or where your mood changed from feeling depressed to feeling unusually happy or irritable. Mood stabilizer medications may be more suited to your needs, either on their own or in combination with antidepressants. Antidepressants alone can cause some people to switch from depression into mania.
Medications are only one way of treating depression and anxiety. Talk therapies, such as interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy, can be just as effective. Peer support, school and job counselling, and housing and employment supports can also help to deal with problems that may trigger or worsen depression or anxiety.
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Ological Problems Causality And Levels Of Evidence
Lets say that Dr. Jones prescribes a beta-blocking antihypertensive agent for Mr. Smith. A month later, Mr. Smith complains that he is feeling really down lately, lacks energy, and is having some difficulty with sexual performance. It is understandable that Dr. Jones might implicate the recently prescribed beta blocker in the genesis of Mr. Smiths complaints. But suppose Mr. Smith has a history of recurrent major depressionwith eight previous episodes over the past 12 years, all characterized by low mood, anergia, and loss of libido. Now the culprit is not so clear, and the risk of post-hoc fallacy is very real. Indeed, as we shall see, epidemiologic studies of beta blockers do not clearly implicate them in DID, notwithstanding many suggestive case reports to the contrary.12 On the other hand, a recent review concluded that, Evidence from case reports should be carefully considered when relevant, randomized, controlled trials have not been adequately designed to detect adverse effects.13 Indeed, large epidemiological studies and meta-analyses cannot always reveal the outlier who has an idiosyncraticbut quite genuinedepressive reaction to a drug.
The Naranjo causality scale14 for adverse drug reactions is one instrument that can assist clinicians in assessing the likelihood that a drug is responsible for the onset of depressive or suicidal ideation.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
- Esketamine must be taken with an oral antidepressant.
- Esketamine should be used only in patients who have tried other depression medicines that did not work for them.
- Patients may experience sedation and dissociation after administration.
- Because of these risks, esketamine is available only through a restricted program, called the Spravato REMS.
- Esketamine is a nasal spray that must be administered in a healthcare setting that is certified in the REMS program where the healthcare provider can monitor the patient for sedation and dissociation for two hours after each dose.
- Risk for temporary sedation and dissociation after administration.
- Esketamine is a federal controlled substance and has the potential to be misused and abused.
- May cause temporary difficulty with attention, judgment, thinking, reaction speed, and motor skills.
- Do not drive or operate machinery until the next day after a restful sleep.
- May harm an unborn baby. Patients should talk to their healthcare provider about the risks of taking this medicine during pregnancy.
Common Side Effects:
Common Side Effects:
Less Common, but Serious, Side Effects:
- Suicidal thoughts and behaviors
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Drugs That Alter Hormone Levels
Some womens health medications such as birth control pills and estrogen replacement therapy used to treat menopausal symptoms contain hormones. These medications manipulate hormone levels in the body, which can affect the central nervous system and lead to depression. If this occurs, talk to your doctor about using other prescription or over-the-counter medications. Hormone-altering drugs that contain progestin-only are believed to be less likely to cause depression.
Which Medications Cause Depression
The idea that there are medications that cause depression is surprising to many people, including a lot of doctors. Medication, after all, is supposed to help you feel better, not worse. Sure, prescriptions often carry side-effects that range from mildly annoying to miserable, but a mental health disorder shouldnt be among them. However, many medications can and do cause depression. Depression caused by medication is called drug-induced depression and is alarmingly prevalent.
A University of Illinois at Chicago study published in 2018 found that more than a third of adults in the United States could be taking medications that can cause depression or increase their suicide risk. That is nearly 110 million people who either have or are at significant risk for drug-induced depression .
Perhaps this number is so high because of the large number of drugs that have depression as a side effect. Currently, that number is more than 200 . This encompasses both prescription and over-the-counter medications. Knowing the types of medications that can cause depression will help you know the risks of what youre taking as well as when to watch for depression symptoms.
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How To Treat Depression
Even when it involves severe, persistent symptoms, depression is treatable. If you think youre depressed, its important to reach out to a mental health professional to learn more about your options.
You can get help for depression by talking to your primary care provider by contacting a licensed psychiatrist in your area or from home using our online psychiatry service.
Depression is usually treated with medications called antidepressants, therapy and changes to your habits and lifestyle. If a medication is involved in your symptoms, your healthcare provider may adjust your dosage or switch you to a medication thats less likely to cause depression.
Medications With Depression As A Side Effect
What are the medications with depression as a side effect? These were among the most common ones listed:
- acid reflux medications like omeprazole, esomeprazole, ranitidine, and famotidine
- allergy medications like montelukast and cetirizine
- anxiety medications like alprazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam
- birth control and hormone therapy, which includes anything containing estrogen
- blood pressure medications like atenolol, metoprolol, enalapril, and quinapril
- pain medications like ibuprofen, cyclobenzaprine, hydrocodone, and tramadol
- antiseizure medications like gabapentin, topiramate, and lamotrigine.
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Medicines That Cause Tardive Dyskinesia
The medications that can cause tardive dyskinesia affect the nervous system. While these medications can be very helpful for treating certain conditions, some of the effects on the nervous system may cause the side effect of tardive dyskinesia.
Its important to be aware that this side effect does not affect everyone who takes these medications, and there may be some genetic factors that affect the risk. Tardive dyskinesia can be mild, moderate, or severe.
Common Drugs May Be Contributing To Depression
Over one-third of Americans take at least one medication with depression as a potential side effect, a new study reports.
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Could common prescription medications be contributing to depression and rising suicide rates?
Over one-third of Americans take at least one prescription drug that lists depression as a potential side effect, a new study reports, and users of such drugs have higher rates of depression than those who dont take such drugs.
Many patients are taking more than one drug that has depression as a side effect, and the study found that the risk of depression increased with each additional such drug taken at the same time.
About 200 prescription drugs can cause depression, and the list includes common medications like proton pump inhibitors used to treat acid reflux, beta-blockers used to treat high blood pressure, birth control pills and emergency contraceptives, anticonvulsants like gabapentin, corticosteroids like prednisone and even prescription-strength ibuprofen. Some of these drugs are also sold over-the-counter in pharmacies.
For some drugs, like beta-blockers and interferon, the side effect of depression is well known, but the authors of the study were surprised at how many drugs were on the list.
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Do I Need Health Insurance To Receive This Service
The referral service is free of charge. If you have no insurance or are underinsured, we will refer you to your state office, which is responsible for state-funded treatment programs. In addition, we can often refer you to facilities that charge on a sliding fee scale or accept Medicare or Medicaid. If you have health insurance, you are encouraged to contact your insurer for a list of participating health care providers and facilities.
What Are The Differences Between Antidepressants
There are distinct differences between the different classes of antidepressants available because they all work in a different way. In addition, within each class, there are differences between individual antidepressants with regards to how long they remain in the body, how they are metabolized, and how much they interact with other medications.
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There Was A Tripling Of Depression Risk Among People On Three Or More Medications That Have Depression As A Potential Side Effect
To get a sense for how much of a risk of depression and suicide taking these drugs was associated with, lets walk through the numbers.
In the total study population of more than 23,000 people , 6 percent reported depression. Among the users of just one of the drugs that have depression as an adverse effect, the prevalence increased to 7 percent. Among people taking two or more of the potentially depression-inducing drugs, the prevalence went up to 10 percent. And among people taking three or more of the drugs, the prevalence was 15 percent.
They found similar associations in non-antidepressant users who were taking medications with suicide symptoms. In the total study population, who werent using medications with suicidal symptoms, 5 percent of participants reported suicidal symptoms. Among adults on one of these medications, the prevalence rose to 8 percent and among adults using three or more, the prevalence increased to 18 percent.
One can say youd expect that finding because people who have more medical problems are more likely to take more medications and are more likely to be depressed, said study co-author Mark Olfson, a professor of epidemiology and psychiatry at the Columbia University Medical Center.
While the researchers did their best to statistically control for factors that may confound their results, like sex, age, race, and employment status, there were some things the paper cant tell us.
Classes Of Depression Medications
Doctors follow expert guidelines when diagnosing and managing depression. There are two main types of drugs doctors prescribe to treat depression:
- Antidepressants. These drugs work by balancing brain chemicals that are involved in depression. There are various classes of antidepressants the different classes influence different chemicals. As a result, the side effects of antidepressants can vary.
- Add-on therapy. These drugs augment treatment with antidepressants. There are a few types of add-on therapy medicines. This includes a second antidepressant, thyroid hormone, and other medicines with effects on mood and anxiety.
Many people see improvement in some symptoms soon after starting an antidepressant. However, it can take a few weeks to see the full effects of these medications. It is important to give antidepressants some time to work. If you do not see progress after four weeks, talk with your doctor. It may be necessary to adjust the dose or switch medicines.
Like symptoms, side effects from antidepressants may improve or go away within a few weeks of starting. However, you should contact your doctor for severe side effects or side effects that continue after 2 to 4 weeks.
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Watch Closely With New Meds
While drug-related depression symptoms can crop up at any time, youre most likely to see them within the first month of use, Olfson says.
So every time your physician prescribes a new medication, ask whether depression is a possible side effect.
If so, keep a journal so that you can jot down any mood-related side effects you notice. Note the day and time when symptoms occur, and whether theyre recurring. Report any symptoms that persist for more than a week or two to your doctor immediately.
Statins And Other Lipid
Why they’re prescribed: Statinsare the class of drugs most commonly prescribed to lower cholesterol levels, followed by fibrates and other drugs, such as ezetimibe, colesevelam and nicotinic acid.
How they can cause depression: Recent research suggests that lipid-lowering drugs may cause depression by depleting levels of cholesterol in the brain, where it plays an important role in the release of neurotransmitters.
Alternatives: A combination of vitamin B12 , vitamin B6, folic acid and fish oil can lower homocysteine levels in the body. Homocysteine, an amino acid, inflicts damage to the inner arterial lining and other cells of the body, elevating lipids levels. While there are many studies that substantiate this nondrug approach and many that reject it, I’ve found that it works consistently well in older patients without posing the risk of serious side effects.
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Many Medications Can Cause It
Tardive dyskinesia is a movement disorder that can develop as a side effect of certain medications. The medications most commonly associated with tardive dyskinesia are antipsychotic medications called neuroleptics that are used to treat psychotic disorders and some mood disorders .
Tardive dyskinesia can also occur as a side effect of some medications that are used to treat nausea and digestive disorders. This article will discuss which medications are associated with tardive dyskinesia, and its symptoms and treatment.
+ Drugs That Cause Depression And Suicide Aka Akathisia
Billiam James Akathisia Anthem released last week and available HERE is timely. Since this headline in Newsweek in May 2013, things have got worse. In America since 2015, life expectancy has been falling and in other developed countries it has stopped rising.
Recent American studies have fingered rising suicide rates as one factor in this fall.
In March 2013 in a post Left Hanging, we gave a list of 100 drugs that can cause suicide. This was based on drugs the regulators had described as capable of causing suicide or drugs that companies in the small print of their labels have linked to depression and suicidality.
Pharmaceutical company lawyers have shown interest in this list. The only drug on the list they quibbled with was Flomax. The implicit message seemed to be it would be difficult for them to argue with the other 99.
In June of this year, a study run from Chicago available Here claimed there were up to 200 drugs linked to people becoming depressed or suicidal.
The Chicago study showed that being on one drug companies have noted a drug is linked to reports of people becoming depressed or suicidal increases the risk of becoming depressed or suicidal, being on two doubles that risk and being on three or more triples the risk. These are average figures some drugs and some combinations are worse.
The PPI group of drugs used for acid and reflux seem to be among the more problematic drugs.
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