Diabetic Risk In Depressed Patients
Several studies admitted that patients with depression have an increased risk of developing DM2 . However, apart from the mechanisms explained earlier, other causes have been proposed. A recent study regarding the association between the antidepressant use and the glycemic control showed that in adults with diabetes, the use of multiple antidepressant subclasses increased significantly the levels of Hb A1C, suggesting that anti-depressive treatment may be a risk factor for suboptimal glycemic control . Prior studies suggested that short-term anti-depressive treatment of nondiabetic depressed patients has a beneficial effect and improve insulin sensitivity together with improving depression, but on the long run, the effects might be opposite . Noradrenergic antidepressants are an exception and may lead to impaired insulin sensitivity even in nondiabetic patients . Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment may improve the glycemic control in depressed DM2 patients and is the only class of antidepressants with confirmed favourable effects on glycemic control on both short and long term use . Continuous antidepressant use significantly associates with diabetes risk, making antidepressants rather than depression related to the incidence of DM2 . It is important to understand the possible negative effects of antidepressant drugs on glycemic control and to try to minimize them.
Reasons For Having A Higher Prevalence Of Low Self
The results of this study cannot provide precise reasons for the higher prevalence of lower self-esteem among females however, a number of possible causes for the gender differences are worth discussing. Although gender equality has improved in recent years in Vietnam and is clearly legislated, gender issues within the family and society remain a challenge for most Vietnamese, who are strongly influenced by traditional culture and custom . There is an association between female gender and emotionally unstable personality . As a result, women are more prone to develop emotionally unstable personality . Thus, females self-esteem may be more likely to fluctuate, depending on how they themselves or others, especially their parents, evaluate their achievements.
Low self-esteem in the adolescents in Cantho City was associated with poor academic performance. Aryana reported that high self-esteem among preuniversity students was an important factor in predicting high academic achievement. Our finding also highlights that self-esteem plays an important role in predicting academic achievement, although a cross-sectional study design is unable to demonstrate causality a prospective study to identify causality of the low self-esteem would be appropriate in future research.
Salary Of Key Persons
Presented here are up to five of this organization’s highest compensated employees. This compensation data includes salary, cash bonuses, and expense accounts and is displayed exactly how it is reported to the IRS. The amounts do not include nontaxable benefits, deferred compensation, or other amounts not reported on Form W-2. In some cases, these amounts may include compensation from related organizations. Read the IRS policies for compensation reporting
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Business Master File Data
Below are some key data points from the Exempt Organization IRS Business Master File for this organization. Learn more about the BMF on the IRS website
Mental health care
Organization which receives a substantial part of its support from a governmental unit or the general public 170
Independent – the organization is an independent organization or an independent auxiliary .
What Is Samhsa’s National Helpline
SAMHSAs National Helpline, , or TTY: is a confidential, free, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year, information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. This service provides referrals to local treatment facilities, support groups, and community-based organizations. Callers can also order free publications and other information.
Also visit the online treatment locator.
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Emerging Trends In Substance Misuse:
- MethamphetamineIn 2019, NSDUH data show that approximately 2 million people used methamphetamine in the past year. Approximately 1 million people had a methamphetamine use disorder, which was higher than the percentage in 2016, but similar to the percentages in 2015 and 2018. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Data shows that overdose death rates involving methamphetamine have quadrupled from 2011 to 2017. Frequent meth use is associated with mood disturbances, hallucinations, and paranoia.
- CocaineIn 2019, NSDUH data show an estimated 5.5 million people aged 12 or older were past users of cocaine, including about 778,000 users of crack. The CDC reports that overdose deaths involving have increased by one-third from 2016 to 2017. In the short term, cocaine use can result in increased blood pressure, restlessness, and irritability. In the long term, severe medical complications of cocaine use include heart attacks, seizures, and abdominal pain.
- KratomIn 2019, NSDUH data show that about 825,000 people had used Kratom in the past month. Kratom is a tropical plant that grows naturally in Southeast Asia with leaves that can have psychotropic effects by affecting opioid brain receptors. It is currently unregulated and has risk of abuse and dependence. The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that health effects of Kratom can include nausea, itching, seizures, and hallucinations.
Montgomery County Public Schools
Silver Spring is served by a county-wide public school system, .
- Silver Spring International Middle School
- Takoma Park Middle School
- Francis Scott Key Middle School
- A. Mario Loiderman Middle School
- Thornton Friends Middle School
- Silver Creek Middle School
Of the public high schools in the region, prior to 2010, was the only one within the census-designated place of Silver Spring. It is nationally recognized for its Communication Arts Program and its Science, Mathematics, and Computer Science Magnet Program, the latter of which perennially produces a large number of finalists and semi-finalists in such academic competitions as the .
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Depression Risk In Diabetic Patients
A recent epidemiological study of 90686 participants found that depression was more prevalent in people with diabetes, regardless of the fact that they had diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes. The same study showed that anxiety was more prevalent only in participants who were aware of their diabetes . One possible explanation might be that the psychological burden of being ill may play an important role on triggering anxiety and depression. However, the fact that in patients with previously undiagnosed diabetes, depression had a higher prevalence and could be due to an unfavourable lifestyle, such as physical inactivity, unhealthy diet or a stressful lifestyle.
Severe hypoglycaemia in patients with DM2 and without anti-depressive treatment was positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, independent of glycemic control, insulin therapy, lifestyle factors and diabetic complications . A meta-analysis estimating the association between depression and neuropathy in patients with DM2 could not clarify if the relationship is bidirectional or not .
Hypothetically, depression could be increased by anti-diabetic treatment . A strong association between depression in patients in their forties with orally treated diabetes was found, compared to patients in their seventies . On the contrary, insulin therapy in elderly people with DM2 led to the improvement of depressive symptoms and did not affect the health-related quality of life of these patients .
What We Aim To Solve
ADAA works to reduce the stigma surrounding anxiety, depression, OCD, PTSD, and related disorders. We do this through focusing on improving quality of life for those with these disorders. ADAA provides education about the disorders and helps people find treatment, resources, and support. More than 25 million people visit ADAA’s website each year – from all across the globe. ADAA strives to improve patient care by promoting implementation of evidence-based treatments and best practices across disciplines through continuing education and trainings and accelerating dissemination of research into practice. ADAA promotes scientific innovation and engages a diverse network of basic and clinical anxiety and depression researchers and providers encouraging the implementation of new treatments to clinicians. These commitments drive ADAAs promise to find new treatments and one day prevent and cure these disorders.
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Relationship Between Psychological Status And Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
The contribution of psychological factors associated with each subtype of GERD is shown in . The level of state anxiety was significantly higher in the NERD group and the ERD group than in the control group, whereas the AEE group showed no significant difference from the control group. The level of trait anxiety was significantly different only in the NERD group among the subtypes of GERD . Concerning depression level, there was a significant difference between the ERD and control , NERD and control , and the AEE and control groups . In addition, significant differences were also observed among the 3 subtypes . The percentage of subjects who exceeded the cutoff value for each psychological score showed the same pattern as the aforementioned comparison using the mean value .
Psychological scores of different subtypes of gastroesophageal reflux disease . Scores of state anxiety Scores of trait anxiety Scores of depression . ERD, erosive reflux disease NERD, non-erosive reflux disease AEE, asymptomatic erosive esophagitis.
Demographic Characteristics Of Study Population
The frequency and percentage of main exposure of interest i.e. screen time and co-variates by outcome status are presented in . Of the total respondents male and female participants were equally distributed gender wise. Majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white , whereas Hispanic respondents were accounted for 14.50% of total respondents. About 87% of respondent had completed at least high school/GED and majority of them were between 20 and 35 years old. Based on the self-reported height and weight of the study participants, it was found that about 64.38% of total population was overweight or obese.
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What Are The Treatments For Depression
Many helpful treatments for depression are available. Treatment for depression can help reduce symptoms and shorten how long the depression lasts. Treatment can include getting therapy and/or taking medications. Your doctor or a qualified mental health professional can help you determine what treatment is best for you.
- Therapy. Many people benefit from psychotherapyalso called therapy or counseling.7,8 Most therapy lasts for a short time and focuses on thoughts feelings and issues that are happening in your life now. In some cases understanding your past can help but finding ways to address what is happening in your life now can help you cope and prepare you for challenges in the future.With therapy, youll work with your therapist to learn skills to help you cope with life, change behaviors that are causing problems and find solutions. Do not feel shy or embarrassed about talking openly and honestly about your feelings and concerns. This is an important part of getting better.Some common goals of therapy include:
- Getting healthier
- Making sense of past painful events
- Identifying things that worsen your depression
- Having better relationships with family and friends
- Understanding why something bothers you and creating a plan to deal with it
Factors Associated With Each Subtype Of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
The results of the multinomial logistic regression analysis are presented in . Female sex was observed to be an independent associated factor for NERD, and male sex for AEE. High BMI and current smoking were independently associated with all 3 subtypes of GERD. Alcohol use was associated only with the AEE group among the 3 subtypes of GERD. Marital status showed a significant association with ERD and NERD. The presence of diabetes mellitus showed a significant inverse correlation with NERD. An H. pylori-seropositive status and endoscopically proven atrophic gastritis also showed significant inverse correlations with the ERD and AEE subtypes, whereas the presence of intestinal metaplasia showed a significant inverse correlation with the NERD subtype.
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Baseline Characteristics Of The Study Population
Among the total of 25,333 subjects, the mean age was 47 years, and men comprised 56.2%. The prevalence rate of NAFLD was 30.9%. The subjects with NAFLD were divided into three groups based on their ultrasonographic findings of steatosis. To rule out the effects of gender, we stratified the population according to gender. The baseline characteristics of the male participants are shown in Table 1. NAFLD was more frequently observed in people who were older and smokers. Prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in subjects with NAFLD. In addition, most of the anthropometric and laboratory variables were less metabolically favorable in subjects with NAFLD . The prevalence rates of depression and anxiety were not significantly different in the NAFLD and control groups.
Table 1. Comparison of baseline characteristics according to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in males.
In the female group, NAFLD was more frequently observed in people who were older and never-smokers. Other baseline characteristics were almost similar to those of men except for the prevalence rates of depression which was higher in the NAFLD group compared to the control group . Figure 2 shows the scores of depression according to the stage of steatosis. The BDI score was significantly higher in the severe NAFLD group compared to the no-NAFLD group . The effect sizes of the differences were provided in the Supplementary Table 1.
Diagnosis And Classification Of Depressive Symptoms
Depressive symptoms were determined based on participant’s responses to the PHQ-9 questionnaire in the NHANES 20112012 cycle. PHQ-9 is the 9-item self-report depression scale that asks questions about the frequency of symptoms of depression over the past 2 weeks . Each item can be scored from 0 to 3 . The PHQ-9 score can range from 0 to 27 and thus, classified in two categories. Individual having PHQ-score < 9 were classified as no or mild depression and those with PHQ-score of 10 or more, were classified as moderate to severe depression .
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Subjects And Study Design
We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study that included 27 906 subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and completed a symptom questionnaire on the same day for routine health checkup at the Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center between January 2008 and December 2011. A schematic protocol of the study design is illustrated in . We excluded 932 subjects from the analysis based on the following criteria: a diagnosis of gastroesophageal carcinoma or active peptic ulcer based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings, and a history of gastrectomy. In addition, we excluded the subjects with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorder other than reflux from the control group, which could lead to bias in the results of the study. Eventually, 19 099 subjects were included in the study, and their clinical and endoscopic records were reviewed. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Seoul National University Hospital . Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before every procedure.
Study population. EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy FGID, functional gastrointestinal disorder AEE, asymptomatic erosive esophagitis NERD, non-erosive reflux disease ERD, erosive reflux disease.
Three Easy Ways To Prioritize Mental Health In Setting New Year’s Resolutions
1. Make your New Years resolutions measurable and specificbetter yet, make them SMART :Make your New Years resolutions measurable and specificbetter yet, make them SMART.
As featured in journals of the National Institutes of Health, SMART goals are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timed. By incorporating the SMART guidelines into your 2022 New Years resolutions, you are promoting the attainment of your goals while prioritizing your mental health and overall wellbeing.
An example of a SMART New Years resolution could be: I will do 15 minutes of mindfulness meditation per day, five days per week, using the sequence of meditations provided by a meditation app. I will do this every week in 2022. What makes this goal SMART is that it is specific and measurable , and therefore it is achievable.
2. In addition to SMART resolutions, make them flexible and allow tweaks as needed.
Give yourself flexibility on when to set and start your New Years resolutions, and when to adapt your resolutions to something more successful. Tweaks are natural and productive. Sticking to resolutions even though your circumstances have changed wont allow you to fulfill them and may only add to stress.
3. Incorporate self-compassion into your resolutions.
As you seek to have your New Years resolutions guide your health and wellness in 2022, consider self-compassion, incorporating the ideals of self-love, and kindness into your goal setting.
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Design Participants And Setting
We surveyed a nationally-representative sample of U.S. young adults aged 19 to 32 regarding their depression and social media use. We drew our sample from a large-scale web-based research panel developed and maintained by a survey research company called Growth from Knowledge . Participants were recruited via random digit dialing and address-based sampling, reaching a sampling frame of over 97% of the U.S. population. GfK is continuously recruiting individuals to be a part of their survey panel. Individuals are also free to withdraw from the panel at any point. The GfK Knowledge Panel® model has been shown to be a statistically valid method for surveying and analyzing health indicators from a nationally representative sample.
The survey research company instituted multiple strategies to improve data quality. For example, they screened all data sets for patterns suggestive of lack of effort. GfK also instituted procedures such as minimizing survey length whenever possible, reducing the need for scrolling, and avoiding the use of long grids. Furthermore, if individuals did not answer a question they were prompted once to answer with the statement your answer is important to us. Please put your best guess.
Depression And Suicide: Getting Help In A Crisis
Some people who are depressed may think about hurting themselves or committing suicide . If you or someone you know is having thoughts about hurting themselves or committing suicide please seek immediate help. The following resources can help:
- Call to reach a 24hour crisis center or dial 911. is the National Suicide Prevention Lifelineexternal icon, which provides free confidential help to people in crisis. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrationexternal icon runs this lifeline.
- Get help from your primary doctor or other health care provider.
- Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
- Contact a minister, spiritual leader, or someone else in your faith community.
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