Wednesday, February 21, 2024

Dsm Diagnostic Criteria For Depression

Depression Is Different From Sadness Or Grief/bereavement

DSM V Criteria for Depression – SIG E CAPS Mnemonic | Diagnosis of Depression

The death of a loved one, loss of a job or the ending of a relationship are difficult experiences for a person to endure. It is normal for feelings of sadness or grief to develop in response to such situations. Those experiencing loss often might describe themselves as being depressed.

But being sad is not the same as having depression. The grieving process is natural and unique to each individual and shares some of the same features of depression. Both grief and depression may involve intense sadness and withdrawal from usual activities. They are also different in important ways:

  • In grief, painful feelings come in waves, often intermixed with positive memories of the deceased. In major depression, mood and/or interest are decreased for most of two weeks.
  • In grief, self-esteem is usually maintained. In major depression, feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common.
  • In grief, thoughts of death may surface when thinking of or fantasizing about joining the deceased loved one. In major depression, thoughts are focused on ending ones life due to feeling worthless or undeserving of living or being unable to cope with the pain of depression.

Grief and depression can co-exist For some people, the death of a loved one, losing a job or being a victim of a physical assault or a major disaster can lead to depression. When grief and depression co-occur, the grief is more severe and lasts longer than grief without depression.

What Should I Know About Dsm V Depression

DSM and depression are associated with one another, but theyre two very different things. Depression is a serious medical condition, while the DSM is a handbook that serves as an authoritative guide for diagnosing mental health disorders.

Diagnostic Criteria For Depression According To the DSM-5Depression is a mental health disorder that may also be called a major depressive disorder or clinical depression. While depression is a mental health disorder, it can also cause physical symptoms like chronic pain or digestive issues. Depression manifests a bit differently in everyone, even though many of their symptoms may be the same. In some people, depression is fairly mild, and in others, it can be quite serious. Depending on the circumstances that brought the depression on, it can be temporary, or it can be persistent.

What Is The DSM?

Im Struggling With Sadness, Do I Have Depression?

Everyone goes through periods of sadness for various lengths of time. If you consider that the main symptom of depression is sadness, it can be difficult to differentiate the difference between normal periods of sadness and depression that requires some type of clinical intervention.

Diagnosing A Major Depressive Disorder During Times Of Loss Or Hardship

If you or someone that you know is experiencing the symptoms as described in the final bullet point, its important to seek emergency help. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-8255 and is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

New Mood Disorders Added

One major area of change in the DSM-5 was the addition of two new depressive disorders: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder .

The diagnosis of DMDD is reserved for children between the ages of 6 and 18 who demonstrate persistent irritability and frequent episodes of out-of-control behavior. The age of onset must be before the age of 10. The diagnosis was added to address concerns that bipolar disorder in children was being overdiagnosed.

PMDD is a more severe form of premenstrual syndrome . The conditions are characterized by intense depression, anxiety, moodiness, and irritability related to the hormonal fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle.

PMDD previously appeared in Appendix B of the DSM-IV under “Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study.” In the DSM-5, PMDD appears in the depressive disorders section.

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What Is Atypical Depression

Common depression leads individuals to feel sad and not enjoy everyday life. Depression with atypical features1 or more commonly, atypical depression, refers to a depressive state where individuals experience improved mood when encountering pleasurable events. This type of major depression, or dysthymia1, is atypical of melancholic depression, where mood improvements from positive situations do not typically manifest in affected individuals1. The name is a misnomer, though. It is not uncommon or unusual2 in fact, atypical depression is over two times more common in women than men and is more chronic with an average earlier onset than melancholic depression1. An increased risk of suicide and anxiety disorders is present with atypical depression. Individuals experiencing bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia, and seasonal affective disorder are more likely to also experience atypical depression4. Some researchers believe that atypical depression is due to key brain differences, inclusive of abnormal chemical neurotransmitters carrying signals to the brain and body, and heredity2.

Is Major Depressive Disorder The Same As Bipolar

dsm iv tr criteria for depression categories download table

Major depressive disorder is not the same as bipolar depression but they do share some challenging symptoms. The hallmark of bipolar depression is periods of mania along with periods of low mood. MDD does not include mania but both illnesses include depression. As with MDD, there are effective treatments for bipolar. It’s important to seek professional treatment when you live with a serious mental illness. Many people with MDD and bipolar attend school, obtain college degrees, work fulltime, enjoy happy relationships and live full lives.

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What To Expect From Treatment

Treatment for a depression can take time and sometimes involves some trial and error. No two kids are the same, and its important to remain patient with the process to help your child feel safe.

  • Education: Educating your child about depression is a crucial first step. This helps your child understand the possible causes , understand brain chemistry , and reduces self-blame. It also normalizes what your child is going through.
  • Psychotherapy: Counseling is a good option for kids struggling with depression. There are different kinds of counseling and what works for one might not work for another. For very young children, play therapy is an option. For older kids and teens, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can be effective. It can take time to find the best patient/therapist match. Make several calls and dont be afraid to ask questions. You know your child best.
  • Medication: Medication might be necessary for moderate to severe cases, but medication works best when combined with counseling. Medication management is important. Close supervision of the prescribing physician is recommended.
  • Hospitalization: For severe cases of depression, including suicidal ideation, hospitalization is sometimes necessary.

What Is The Dsm

In 1952, the APA published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to classify mental health conditions and outline their associated diagnosing criteria.

Healthcare and mental health professionals often use the DSM as a reference guide for diagnosing mental health conditions.

With its latest revision released in 2013, the DSM is now in its 5th edition .

Many experts in the mental health field used evidence-based research, literature reviews, and other credible diverse sources of information to revise the DSM.

You can find symptoms, criteria, contributing factors, and much more for more than 20 mental health classifications, and even some new conditions were identified and added.

Specifiers for each condition listed are added extensions that provide medical professionals with clarifying information to ensure a more accurate diagnosis.

When making a diagnosis, all the answers may not be found in this manual, but its a great place to start.

  • difficulty functioning due to their heightened irritability
  • reacting out of proportion to the situation

DMDD may be a newly classified disorder, but treatment is available.

Treatment often centers around what has worked for similar disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety.

A combination of medication and psychotherapy treatments, such as parent training, is often recommended.

Also Check: How To Feel Less Depressed And Anxious

Risk Factors For Depression

Depression can affect anyoneeven a person who appears to live in relatively ideal circumstances.

Several factors can play a role in depression:

  • Biochemistry: Differences in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.
  • Genetics: Depression can run in families. For example, if one identical twin has depression, the other has a 70 percent chance of having the illness sometime in life.
  • Personality: People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression.
  • Environmental factors: Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make some people more vulnerable to depression.

Why Is Major Depressive Disorder Called Unipolar Depression

Major Depressive Disorder | DSM-5 Diagnosis, Symptoms and Treatment

Depression, or a persistent feeling of sadness that can be debilitating if left untreated, is known by many other medical terms such as chronic depression, major depressive disorder or unipolar depression. Unlike bipolar depression, unipolar depression does not include mania. “Bi” or two, as in bipolar refers to both depression and mania as the prevailing moods associated with the illness. “Uni” means one as in one mooddepressionwithout mania.

  • Preventing recurrent depression: long-term treatment for major depressive disorder. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 9:214-223.
  • Iancu SC, Wong YM, Rhebergen D, van Balkom AJLM, Batelaan NM. Long-term disability in major depressive disorder: a 6-year follow-up study. Psychol Med. 2020 Jul 50:1644-1652. doi: 10.1017/S0033291719001612. Epub 2019 Jul 9. PMID: 31284881.
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    Is Major Depressive Disorder Considered A Disability

    Yes, major depressive disorder is considered a disability and is in fact a leading cause of disability in the United States. 2 Depression is a serious mental illness that can impact your ability to work. In some cases you may qualify to receive social security benefits while you’re unable to work. To learn if you qualify for benefits and to apply, read Psycom’s related article: Could You Quality for Mental Health Disability Protections?

    What To Expect At School

    Its very difficult to perform well in school when thinking and concentration are impaired by depression. Its important to include the classroom teacher and a school counselor or psychologist on the treatment team to help your child work through this difficult time.

    There are classroom accommodations that might benefit your child during this time. Talk to the classroom teacher about the following:

    • Extended time for lengthy assignments and tests
    • Breaking down assignments into manageable pieces
    • Help to create study or homework schedules
    • Provide copy of class notes
    • Taking tests in a quiet room, free from distractions

    Its also helpful to have a plan in place should your child need a break during the day. Examples might include a daily check-in with a school counselor or psychologist in the early stage of treatment and a weekly appointment as your child stabilizes.

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    How Is Depression Different From Sadness In Dsm

    • The difference between depression and sadness is that depression is a mental illness while sadness is a natural emotion.
    • Depression is a mood disorder that causes feelings of extreme sadness, despair, and hopelessness that interfere with daily activities. Sadness is an emotional response to events that are typically sad, such as the death of a loved one.
    • A person going through depression feels sad and hopeless about the future for weeks or months at a time, while someone who is sad may feel upset for a day or two and then return to their usual mood.
    • Depression also includes symptoms such as changes in appetite, sleep disturbances, loss of interest in activities, and feelings of guilt and worthlessness.
    • Sadness is a normal reaction to difficult situations, while depression is a mental illness that requires treatment. If you are feeling sad for more than two weeks and your mood is impacting your daily life, its important to see a doctor and discuss whether you could suffer from depression.

    What Is Dsm 5

    Dsm 5 Depression / DSM

    The DSM-5 is the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It was released in 2013 and has since been used to diagnose mental disorders. The DSM-IV was published in 1994, so there have been a lot of changes made in the DSM-V. One of the main changes that were made is that all mental disorders are now categorized as diseases instead of disorders. This change was made because it is seen as more accurate to call them diseases, and it also puts psychiatry on par with other medical specialties.

    This criterion is used to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder, which is a mental disorder that is characterized by at least two weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest in activities.

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    Loss Of Interest In Activities

    This is another common symptom of Major Depressive Disorder which includes having no interest in activities such as sex and hobbies that were once pleasurable. Loss of energy can also be a significant indicator of depression. People with this disorder may have difficulties concentrating on tasks at hand because they lack motivation and/or concentration span

    Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    The DSM 5 criteria for Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is given as follows:

  • Severe recurrent temper outbursts manifested verbally and/or behaviorally that are grossly out of proportion in intensity or duration to the situation or provocation.
  • The temper outbursts are inconsistent with developmental level.
  • The temper outbursts occur, on average, three or more times per week.
  • The mood between temper outbursts is persistently irritable or angry most of the day, nearly every day, and is observable by others .
  • Criteria AD have been present for 12 or more months. Throughout that time, the individual has not had a period lasting 3 or more consecutive months without all the symptoms in Criteria AD.
  • Criteria A and D are present in at least two of three settings and are severe in at least one of these.
  • The diagnosis should not be made for the first time before age 6 years or after age 18 years.
  • There has never been a distinct period lasting more than 1 day during which the full symptom criteria, except duration, for a manic or hypomanic episode have been met. Note: Developmentally appropriate mood elevation, such as occurs in the context of a highly positive event or its anticipation, should not be considered as a symptom of mania or hypomania.
  • The behaviors do not occur exclusively during an episode of major depressive disorder and are not better explained by another mental disorder .
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    Psychomotor Retardation Or Agitation

    This criterion is used to measure the severity of depressive symptoms. Psychomotor retardation includes slowed movements and speech, decreased energy and fatigue, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, thoughts of suicide, and problems with concentration. On the other hand, psychomotor agitation refers to increased restlessness, anxiety, racing thoughts, talking too much, and impulsiveness.

    Additional Dsm Major Depressive Disorder Criteria

    How To Tell You Are You Clinically Depressed? | DSM 5 Criteria For Depression |

    In MDD, the DSM states either a depressed mood or anhedonia must be present. In addition to the above DSM criteria for a major depressive episode, the episode must:

    • Be at least two weeks long
    • Cause significant distress or severely impact social, occupational or other important life areas
    • Not be precipitated by drug use
    • Not meet the criteria for another mental disorder like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder
    • Not be better explained by bereavement

    Major depressive disorder can be rated mild, moderate or severe. The DSM also recognizes MDD may occur with psychotic symptoms. When the MDD continues for more than two years, the DSM labels it chronic depression or dysthymia.

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    Dsm 5 Depression Types

    The DSM 5 defines the following types of Depression:

    • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
    • Major depressive disorder
    • Persistent depressive disorder ,
    • Depressive disorder due to another medical condition
    • Unspecified Depressive Disorder

    The DSM 5 depression criteria specifies the symptoms, exclusions and time periods for all the subtypes, and to be concise only the main ones are described below.

    The key difference between the ICD and DSM 5 Depressive disorders is that the Premenstrual syndrome has not been recognized separately in the ICD 10 , and Substance use induced depression is also not coded under depression and is not a separate category under the substance chapter.

    There are several depression tests available online but these are rarely clinical tests and their results should not be relied upon,

    Treatment For Major Depressive Disorder

    There are several treatment methods for major depression disorder. These approaches include psychotherapy, antidepressant medications, electroconvulsive treatment , and other somatic therapies. However, ECT is generally avoided, except in extreme circumstances, in favor of both psychotherapy and antidepressants. A medical psychiatrist can provide both psychotherapy services and prescribe antidepressants, which differ for each person based on individual needs.

    If you find yourself experiencing any of the symptoms or relating in any way to major depression disorder, you should seek assistance from a medical professional. Thankfully, major depressive disorder has become much less stigmatized in recent years. There is plenty of in-depth information available about depression, and your chosen medical professional is often likely to go through it with you so you can choose the best treatment for your lifestyle.

    You should feel as though you have options. You most likely will not have to be burdened by this disease and the negativity that often comes with symptoms of depression. Talking to a counselor and a medical professional is the first step to living a happier, more fulfilling life.

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    Types Of Major Depressive Disorder

    You might be surprised to learn that there are many different types of major depressive disorder that can affect you can make living your daily life difficult. Each type often has different causes, but they typically involve the same feeling of disinterest in activities that you once loved and an overall feeling of melancholy. These are divided into subtypes called specifiers that determine how long the diagnosis of depression lasts and the defining characteristic of each type.

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