What The Science Says About The Effectiveness Of St Johns Wort For Depression
The results of studies on the effectiveness of St. Johnâs wort for depression are mixed.
- In a 12-week, 2011 clinical trial with 73 participants, neither St. Johnâs wort nor a standard antidepressant medication called citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor , decreased symptoms of minor depression better than a placebo. The study was funded by NCCIH and NIMH.
- In a 26-week clinical trial with 124 participants, St. Johnâs wort, a standard antidepressant , and a placebo were similarly effective in treating major depression of moderate severity. NCCIH and NIMH funded this 2012 analysis of data collected in 2002.
- A 2008 review of 29 international studies suggested that St. Johnâs wort may be better than a placebo and as effective as different standard prescription antidepressants for major depression of mild to moderate severity. St. Johnâs wort also appeared to have fewer side effects than standard antidepressants. The studies conducted in German-speaking countriesâwhere St. Johnâs wort has a long history of use by medical professionalsâreported more positive results than those done in other countries, including the United States.
- St. Johnâs wort was no more effective than placebo in treating major depression of moderate severity, an NCCIH- and NIMH-funded study of 340 participants reported in 2002.
The Placebo Effect
How Can I Take Care Of Myself
Once you begin treatment, you should gradually start to feel better. Go easy on yourself during this time. Try to do things you used to enjoy. Even if you dont feel like doing them, they can improve your mood. Other things that may help:
- Try to get some physical activity. Just 30 minutes a day of walking can boost mood.
- Try to maintain a regular bedtime and wake-up time.
- Eat regular, healthy meals.
- Do what you can as you can. Decide what must get done and what can wait.
- Try to connect with other people, and talk with people you trust about how you are feeling.
- Postpone important life decisions until you feel better.
- Avoid using alcohol, nicotine, or drugs, including medications not prescribed for you.
Intramural And Extramural Research
NIH devotes 10% of its funding to research within its own facilities , and gives > 80% of its funding in to extramural researchers. Of this extramural funding, a certain percentage must be granted to small businesses under the program. As of 2011, the extramural funding consisted of about 50,000 grants to more than 325,000 researchers at more than 3000 institutions. By 2018, this rate of granting remained reasonably steady, at 47,000 grants to 2,700 organizations. In 2010, NIH spent US$10.7bn on , US$7.4bn on -related research, US$6.0bn on prevention research, US$5.8bn on cancer, and US$5.7bn on .
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Biographical Sketch Of Nimh Director Joshua A Gordon Md Phd
Joshua A. Gordon, M.D., Ph.D., is the director of the National Institute of Mental Health, the lead federal agency for research on mental disorders.
Dr. Gordon pursued a combined M.D.-Ph.D. degree at the University of California, San Francisco . Medical school coursework in psychiatry and neuroscience convinced him that the greatest need, and greatest promise, for biomedical science was in these areas. During his Ph.D. thesis with Dr. Michael Stryker, Dr. Gordon pioneered the methods necessary to study brain plasticity in the mouse visual system.
Upon completion of the dual degree program at UCSF, Dr. Gordon went to Columbia University for his psychiatry residency and research fellowship because of the breadth and depth of the research opportunities there. Working with Dr. Rene Hen, Dr. Gordon and colleagues studied the role of the hippocampus, a brain structure known to be important for memory and emotional processes associated with anxiety and depression. He joined the Columbia faculty in 2004 as an assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry.
In addition to his research, Dr. Gordon was an associate director of the Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute Adult Psychiatry Residency Program, where he directed the neuroscience curriculum and administered research training programs for residents. He also maintained a general psychiatric practice, caring for patients who suffer from the illnesses he studied in his lab at Columbia.
Learn The Signs And Find Treatment
Do you feel very tired, helpless, and hopeless?
Have you lost interest in many of the activities and interests you previously enjoyed?
Are you having trouble working, sleeping, eating, and functioning?
Have you felt this way day after day?
If you answered yes, you may be experiencing depression.
As you get older, you may go through a lot of changesdeath of loved ones, retirement, stressful life events, or medical problems. Its normal to feel uneasy, stressed, or sad about these changes. But after adjusting, many older adults feel well again.
Depression is different. It is a medical condition that interferes with daily life and normal functioning. It is not a normal part of aging, a sign of weakness, or a character flaw. Many older adults with depression need treatment to feel better.
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Talking To Your Health Care Provider About Your Mental Health
Communicating well with your doctor health care provider can improve your care and help you both make good choices about your health. Read our Tips for Talking With Your Health Care Provider to help prepare for and get the most out of your visit. For additional resources, including questions to ask your doctor, visit the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Notable Discoveries And Developments
Since its inception, the NIH intramural research program has been a source of many pivotal scientific and medical discoveries. Some of these include:
In September 2006, the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research started a contract for the for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function to develop a set of state-of-the-art measurement tools to enhance collection of data in large cohort studies. Scientists from more than 100 institutions nationwide contributed. In September 2012, the NIH Toolbox was rolled out to the research community. NIH Toolbox assessments are based, where possible, on and adapted for testing by computer.
The NIH partnered with in 2020 during the to develop a vaccine. The final phase of testing began on July 27 with up to 30,000 volunteers assigned to one of two groupsone receiving the vaccine and the other receiving salt water injectionsand continued until there had been approximately 100 cases of COVID-19 among the participants.
Collaboration with Wuhan Institute of Virology
Following the outbreak of the , NIH-funded has been the subject of controversy and increased scrutiny due to its ties to the which has been at the center of speculation since early 2020 that SARS-CoV-2 may have escaped in a lab incident. Under political pressure, the NIH withdrew funding to EcoHealth Alliance in July 2020.
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Further Immigration Expansion And Industrialization
In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented from and supplied a surplus of labor for the country’s industrialization and transformed its culture. National infrastructure, including and , spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the . The later invention of and the would also affect communication and urban life.
The United States fought west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890. Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and their confinement to . Additionally, the in the 1830s exemplified the that forcibly resettled Indians. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Mainland expansion also included the from in 1867. In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii the and formed the , which the U.S. in 1898. , , and the were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the . was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the . The were purchased from Denmark in 1917.
What Causes Perinatal Depression
Perinatal depression is a real medical illness and can affect any motherregardless of age, race, income, culture, or education. Women are not to blame or at fault for having perinatal depression: it is not brought on by anything a mother has or has not done. Perinatal depression does not have a single cause. Research suggests that perinatal depression is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Life stress , the physical and emotional demands of childbearing and caring for a new baby, and changes in hormones that occur during and after pregnancy can contribute to the development of perinatal depression. In addition, women are at greater risk for developing perinatal depression if they have a personal or family history of depression or bipolar disorder or if they have experienced perinatal depression with a previous pregnancy.
Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum psychosis is a severe mental illness that occurs after childbirth. PP is a medical emergency, and it is important to seek help immediately by calling 911 or going to the nearest emergency room. Women who have PP can have delusions , hallucinations , mania , paranoia, and confusion. Women who have PP also may be at risk for harming themselves or their child and should receive help as soon as possible. Recovery is possible with professional help.
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Icipating In Clinical Research
Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.
Researchers at NIMH and around the country conduct many studies with patients and healthy volunteers. We have new and better treatment options today because of what clinical trials uncovered years ago. Be part of tomorrows medical breakthroughs. Talk to your doctor or health care provider about clinical trials, their benefits and risks, and whether one is right for you.
For more information about clinical research and how to find clinical trials being conducted around the country, visit NIMH’s clinical trials information webpage.
Literature Philosophy And Visual Art
In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe, contributing to . Writers such as , , , and established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. and poet were major figures in the century’s second half , virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet. A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and charactersuch as ‘s , Twain’s , ‘s and ‘s may be dubbed the “.”
In the visual arts, the was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European . The 1913 in New York City, an exhibition of European , shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene., , and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the of and and the of and developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then has brought fame to American architects such as , , and . Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of , with major photographers including , , , and .
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What Is Perinatal Depression
Perinatal depression is a mood disorder that can affect women during pregnancy and after childbirth. The word perinatal refers to the time before and after the birth of a child. Perinatal depression includes depression that begins during pregnancy and depression that begins after the baby is born . Mothers with perinatal depression experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and fatigue that may make it difficult for them to carry out daily tasks, including caring for themselves or others.
How is postpartum depression different from the baby blues? The baby blues is a term used to describe mild mood changes and feelings of worry, unhappiness, and exhaustion that many women sometimes experience in the first 2 weeks after having a baby. Babies require around-the-clock care, so its normal for mothers to feel tired or overwhelmed sometimes. If mood changes and feelings of anxiety or unhappiness are severe, or if they last longer than 2 weeks, a woman may have postpartum depression. Women with postpartum depression generally will not feel better unless they receive treatment.
What The Research Means
New insight into the nature and scope of depression in men is prompting psychologists and other health professionals to further differentiate research and treatment. Clinicians are increasingly aware that they must be sensitive to depression danger signs for men that are different than those for women. Psychologists and other mental health providers are also giving special attention to men’s mental health issues given men’s greater resistance to even seeking treatment, their greater discomfort with emotional expression and their higher risk of abusive anger, substance abuse, risky behavior and suicide.
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Beyond Treatment: Things You Can Do
Here are other tips that may help you or a loved one during treatment for depression:
- Try to be active and exercise.
- Set realistic goals for yourself.
- Try to spend time with other people and confide in a trusted friend or relative.
- Try not to isolate yourself, and let others help you.
- Expect your mood to improve gradually, not immediately.
- Postpone important decisions, such as getting married or divorced, or changing jobs until you feel better. Discuss decisions with others who know you well and have a more objective view of your situation.
- Continue to educate yourself about depression.
National Institute Of Mental Health
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Prevalence Of Major Depressive Episode Among Adolescents
- Figure 2 shows the past year prevalence of major depressive episode among U.S. adolescents in 2019.
- An estimated 3.8 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in the United States had at least one major depressive episode. This number represented 15.7% of the U.S. population aged 12 to 17.
- The prevalence of major depressive episode was higher among adolescent females compared to males .
- The prevalence of major depressive episode was highest among adolescents reporting two or more races .
|2 or more Races||20.9|
*Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race all other racial/ethnic groups are non-Hispanic | AI/AN = American Indian/Alaska Native.Note: Estimates for Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander groups are not reported in the above table due to low precision.
Economic Impact Of Depression
- Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide and is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease.
- Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability in the U.S. with major depressive disorder being the most common
- Mental Health is the second leading workplace concern, following only family issues.
- Depression contributes to the estimated $100 billion annual cost of depression for U.S. employers, including $44 billion a year in lost productivity alone.
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What Causes Depression
The exact cause of depression is unknown. It may be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.2 Everyone is different but the following factors may increase a persons chances of becoming depressed:1
- Having blood relatives who have had depression
- Experiencing traumatic or stressful events, such as physical or sexual abuse, the death of a loved one, or financial problems
- Going through a major life change even if it was planned
- Having a medical problem, such as cancer, stroke, or chronic pain
- Taking certain medications. Talk to your doctor if you have questions about whether your medications might be making you feel depressed.
- Using alcohol or drugs
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Do You Know The Signs
Depression may sometimes be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in some older adults because sadness is not their main symptom. They may have other, less obvious symptoms of depression or they may not be willing to talk about their feelings. It is important to know the signs and seek help if you are concerned.
Depression has many symptoms, including physical ones. If you have been experiencing several of the following symptoms for at least two weeks, you may be suffering from depression:
- Persistent sad, anxious, or empty mood
- Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities
- Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism
- Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness
- Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions
- Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
- Appetite and/or unintended weight changes
- Thoughts of death or suicide, suicide attempts
- Restlessness, irritability
- Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause and/or that do not ease even with treatment
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