Thursday, July 18, 2024

What Happened During The Great Depression

The Controversial New Deal

What HAPPENED To African Americans During The Great Depression? – #onemichistory

President Franklin Roosevelt promised massive change when he was voted-in in 1933. The New Deal he initiated was an innovative, unprecedented series of domestic programs and acts designed to bolster American business, reduce unemployment, and protect the public.

Loosely based on Keynesian economics, it was based on the fact that the government could and should stimulate the economy. The New Deal set lofty goals to create and maintain the national infrastructure, full employment, and healthy wages. The government set about achieving these goals through price, wage, and even production controls.

Some economists claim that Roosevelt continued many of Hoover’s interventions, just on a larger scale. He kept in place a rigid focus on price supports and minimum wages and removed the country from the gold standard, forbidding individuals to hoard gold coins and bullion. He banned monopolistic business practices and instituted dozens of new public works programs and other job-creation agencies.

The Roosevelt administration paid farmers and ranchers to stop or cut back on production. One of the most heartbreaking conundrums of the period was the destruction of excess crops, despite the need for thousands of Americans to access affordable food.

Dance Marathons Sound Great But Were Actually Heartbreaking

What would you do for a roof over your head and a few hot meals? Would you sign up to dance, and dance, and keep dancing, for days, weeks, and even months at a time? Lots of people did.

Dance marathons started in the 1920s, according to History Link, and they were endurance competitions where couples tried to be the last ones standing. Winners would receive some prize money, and they were so controversial that some cities banned them outright.

Why would people do this? Because they were fed, usually on high tables while they shuffled along in front of crowds who gathered to watch them wear themselves into exhaustion before ultimately collapsing until only one couple was left standing. “Heartbreaking” doesn’t really cover it.

What Were The Causes Of The Great Depression

Four factors played roles of varying importance. The stock market crash of 1929 shattered confidence in the American economy, resulting in sharp reductions in spending and investment. Banking panics in the early 1930s caused many banks to fail, decreasing the pool of money available for loans. The gold standard required foreign central banks to raise interest rates to counteract trade imbalances with the United States, depressing spending and investment in those countries. The Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act imposed steep tariffs on many industrial and agricultural goods, inviting retaliatory measures that ultimately reduced output and caused global trade to contract.

Great Depression, worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted until about 1939. It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world, sparking fundamental changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policy, and economic theory. Although it originated in the United States, the Great Depression caused drastic declines in output, severe unemployment, and acute deflation in almost every country of the world. Its social and cultural effects were no less staggering, especially in the United States, where the Great Depression represented the harshest adversity faced by Americans since the Civil War.

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How Did The Great Depression Affect Race Relations Quizlet

How did competition for jobs impact race relations during the Great Depression? Non-whites were paid less and they were targets for violence for taking those less paid jobs. Why did many farm families leave their land during the Great Depression?

What group of people faced the greatest hardship during the Great Depression?

The countrys most vulnerable populations, such as children, the elderly, and those subject to discrimination, like African Americans, were the hardest hit. Most white Americans felt entitled to what few jobs were available, leaving African Americans unable to find work, even in the jobs once considered their domain.

Reasons A Great Depression Could Not Happen Again

Great Depression on emaze

While anything is possible, it’s unlikely to happen again. Central banks around the world, including the Federal Reserve, have learned from the past. There are better safeguards in place to protect against catastrophe, and developments in monetary policy help manage the economy. The Great Recession, for instance, had a significantly smaller impact.

But monetary policy can’t offset fiscal policy. Some argue that the sizes of the U.S. national debt and the current account deficit could trigger an economic crisis. Experts also predict that climate change could cause profound losses.

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Role Of Women And Household Economics

Women’s primary role was as housewives without a steady flow of family income, their work became much harder in dealing with food and clothing and medical care. Birthrates fell everywhere, as children were postponed until families could financially support them. The average birthrate for 14 major countries fell 12% from 19.3 births per thousand population in 1930, to 17.0 in 1935. In Canada, half of Roman Catholic women defied Church teachings and used contraception to postpone births.

Among the few women in the labor force, layoffs were less common in the white-collar jobs and they were typically found in light manufacturing work. However, there was a widespread demand to limit families to one paid job, so that wives might lose employment if their husband was employed. Across Britain, there was a tendency for married women to join the labor force, competing for part-time jobs especially.

In France, very slow population growth, especially in comparison to Germany continued to be a serious issue in the 1930s. Support for increasing welfare programs during the depression included a focus on women in the family. The Conseil Supérieur de la Natalité campaigned for provisions enacted in the Code de la Famille that increased state assistance to families with children and required employers to protect the jobs of fathers, even if they were immigrants.

Pbs Documentary: The March Of The Bonus Army

PBS Documentary: The March of the Bonus Army

  • Writer

Humbled by the Great Depression, this song gave voice to Americans’ fears and feelings of loss

  • Music

In White Angel Breadline, her first documentary photograph, Dorothea Lange enabled Americans to see the tragic effects of the Great Depression. The image evoked national sympathy, rather than scorn, for the hungry and homeless.

  • Media Arts

Generous support for educational programs at the Kennedy Center is provided by the U.S. Department of Education.

Gifts and grants to educational programs at the Kennedy Center are provided by A. James & Alice B. Clark Foundation Annenberg Foundation the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Bank of America Bender Foundation, Inc. Carter and Melissa Cafritz Trust Carnegie Corporation of New York DC Commission on the Arts and Humanities Estée Lauder Exelon Flocabulary Harman Family Foundation The Hearst Foundations the Herb Alpert Foundation the Howard and Geraldine Polinger Family Foundation William R. Kenan, Jr. Charitable Trust the Kimsey Endowment The King-White Family Foundation and Dr. J. Douglas White Laird Norton Family Foundation Little Kids Rock Lois and Richard England Family Foundation Dr. Gary Mather and Ms. Christina Co Mather Dr. Gerald and Paula McNichols Foundation The Morningstar Foundation The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation

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Stock Market Crash Of 1929

On October 24, 1929, as nervous investors began selling overpriced shares en masse, the stock market crash that some had feared happened at last. A record 12.9 million shares were traded that day, known as Black Thursday.

Five days later, on some 16 million shares were traded after another wave of panic swept Wall Street. Millions of shares ended up worthless, and those investors who had bought stocks on margin were wiped out completely.

As consumer confidence vanished in the wake of the stock market crash, the downturn in spending and investment led factories and other businesses to slow down production and begin firing their workers. For those who were lucky enough to remain employed, wages fell and buying power decreased.

Many Americans forced to buy on credit fell into debt, and the number of foreclosures and repossessions climbed steadily. The global adherence to the gold standard, which joined countries around the world in a fixed currency exchange, helped spread economic woes from the United States throughout the world, especially Europe.

Life During The Depression

The Great Depression: Crash Course US History #33

The Depression caused many farmers to lose their farms. At the same time, years of over-cultivation and drought created the Dust Bowl in the Midwest, destroying agricultural production in a previously fertile region. Thousands of these farmers and other unemployed workers migrated to California in search of work.

Many ended up living as homeless hobos. Others moved to shantytowns called Hoovervilles,” named after then-President Herbert Hoover.

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Great Depression Ends And World War Ii Begins

With Roosevelts decision to support Britain and France in the struggle against Germany and the other Axis Powers, defense manufacturing geared up, producing more and more private sector jobs.

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to Americas entry into World War II, and the nations factories went back in full production mode.

This expanding industrial production, as well as widespread conscription beginning in 1942, reduced the unemployment rate to below its pre-Depression level. The Great Depression had ended at last, and the United States turned its attention to the global conflict of World War II.

What Was The Great Depression

The Great Depression, which began in the United States in 1929 and spread worldwide, was the longest and most severe economic downturn in modern history. It was marked by steep declines in industrial production and in prices , mass unemployment, banking panics, and sharp increases in rates of poverty and homelessness.

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What Happened To The Oil Industry During The Great Depression

During the Great Depression of the 1930s, massive oil discoveries in Texas, alongside falling global demand for energy, sent oil prices tumbling downwards. As we reported in 1931, that not only caused investors in oil firms to suffer huge losses, but also contributed to deflation around the world.

What Was The Great Depression Like For Lenny Wilkens

World War I, the Treaty of Versailles, and the Great Depression ...
  • Lenny Wilkens was born in 1930s. The 1930s were called the Great Depression . It was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world. Despite the Great Depression, Hollywood and popular film production flourished.

Video answer: 1935 urban middle school sports and fitness in the great

9 other answers

Baseball was not the only sport admired and affected during the Depression. The young National Football League was heavily affected financially, as it was not as popular as baseball at the time. The Depression years of the early 1930s hit the pro football ranks with a vengeance.

It was events like this, bringing entertainment and philanthropy together, that kept the sports scene flourishing during the Great Depression. Much the way people gather at churches and temples, the people of Seattle gathered at the playgrounds and ballparks to show their civic pride and communal spirit.

Community sport flourished during Great Depression. LONDON – In the year after the 1929 Wall Street crash, Babe Ruth negotiated an $80,000 salary with the New York Yankees.

The great depression impacted many sports such as baseball, basketball, and football causing many teams to cut salaries of many athletes. Although the great depression caused economic hardship for many people, but sports kept people entertained and made them forget their troubles.

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Premiers Plan And The Labor Split

In 1931 the state and federal governments met to resolve the crisis and formulated the Premiers Plan, a strategy they claimed was based on the principle of Equality of Sacrifice but which called for a massive 20 per cent cut in federal and state spending along with increased taxes.

What was intended as a compromise fragmented the party into three factions. Jack Lang and supporters of the loans default program were expelled and formed Lang Labor. Ted Theodore stayed with Scullin and formed a moderate approach to the crisis. Minister for Public Works Joseph Lyons led a fiscally conservative faction.

Lyons and his supporters resigned from government and joined the Opposition Nationalist Party to form the United Australia Party in May 1931.

Reacting To The Crisis

For many, the bleak situation led to desperation. Was there any way out: a light at the end of the tunnel? Solutions seemed to lie in activism and labour unions, and in various proposals for Canadian political reform.

  • Montréal soup kitchenPhotographer unknown, 1931Library and Archives Canada, a168131
  • The Single Mens Unemployed Association parading to Bathurst Street United ChurchLibrary and Archives Canada, C-029397
  • Brochure: Toward the DawnCCF, February 1939Saskatchewan Archives Board, Political Pamphlets, CCF National Office, 15
  • Charter of the Workers Unity League1932Saskatchewan Archives Board, R-255.C.8

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World War Ii And Recovery

The common view among economic historians is that the Great Depression ended with the advent of World War II. Many economists believe that government spending on the war caused or at least accelerated recovery from the Great Depression, though some consider that it did not play a very large role in the recovery, though it did help in reducing unemployment.

The rearmament policies leading up to World War II helped stimulate the economies of Europe in 19371939. By 1937, unemployment in Britain had fallen to 1.5 million. The mobilization of manpower following the outbreak of war in 1939 ended unemployment.

When the United States entered the war in 1941, it finally eliminated the last effects from the Great Depression and brought the U.S. unemployment rate down below 10%. In the US, massive war spending doubled economic growth rates, either masking the effects of the Depression or essentially ending the Depression. Businessmen ignored the mounting national debt and heavy new taxes, redoubling their efforts for greater output to take advantage of generous government contracts.

Who Is This Greatest Generation

Milton Friedman explains role of gold in Great Depression.

The Minnesotans who grew up during the Great Depression were members of a unique generation in American history. They were among the first comic book readers, the first regular movie-goers, the first devoted radio listeners, the first mass consumers, the first to place their trust in the federal government, and the first to endure the hardships of a decade-long economic depression. Many of them went on to do great things in war and peace. Many lived quiet lives of dignity and grace. And many continued to battle adversity throughout their adult lives. Their experiences during the Great Depression were instrumental in making them who they became.

Keep your sunny side up, up!Hide the side that gets blue.If you have nine sons in a row.Baseball teams make money, you know!Keep your funny side up, up!Let your laughter come through, do!Stand up on your legs Be like two fried eggs Keep your sunny side up.

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What Are Some Physical And Emotional Health Problems Caused By The Great Depression

Depression Causes Physical Symptoms Chronic fatigue. Decreased interest in sex. Decreased appetite. Insomnia, lack of deep sleep, or oversleeping.

Why were conditions for African Americans and Latinos especially difficult during the Depression quizlet?

For who were conditions especially difficult? Latinos and African Americans their unemployment rates were higher, and they were the lowest paid. They also dealt w/ increasing racial violence from unemployed white competing for the same jobs. Whites demanded that Latinos be deported.

Bank Runs And The Hoover Administration

Despite assurances from President Herbert Hoover and other leaders that the crisis would run its course, matters continued to get worse over the next three years. By 1930, 4 million Americans looking for work could not find it that number had risen to 6 million in 1931.

Meanwhile, the countrys industrial production had dropped by half. Bread lines, soup kitchens and rising numbers of homeless people became more and more common in Americas towns and cities. Farmers couldnt afford to harvest their crops, and were forced to leave them rotting in the fields while people elsewhere starved. In 1930, severe droughts in the Southern Plains brought high winds and dust from Texas to Nebraska, killing people, livestock and crops. The Dust Bowl inspired a mass migration of people from farmland to cities in search of work.

In the fall of 1930, the first of four waves of banking panics began, as large numbers of investors lost confidence in the solvency of their banks and demanded deposits in cash, forcing banks to liquidate loans in order to supplement their insufficient cash reserves on hand.

Bank runs swept the United States again in the spring and fall of 1931 and the fall of 1932, and by early 1933 thousands of banks had closed their doors.

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What Really Caused The Great Depression

It’s hard to pinpoint exactly what specific factor caused the Great Depression. But economists and historians generally agree that there were several mitigating factors that led to this period of downturn. These include the stock market crash of 1929, the gold standard, a drop in lending and tariffs, as well as banking panics, and contracted monetary policies by the Fed.

Women In The Great Depression

How the Great Depression Altered US Foreign Policy

There was one group of Americans who actually gained jobs during the Great Depression: Women. From 1930 to 1940, the number of employed women in the United States rose 24 percent from 10.5 million to 13 million Though theyd been steadily entering the workforce for decades, the financial pressures of the Great Depression drove women to seek employment in ever greater numbers as male breadwinners lost their jobs. The 22 percent decline in marriage rates between 1929 and 1939 also created an increase in single women in search of employment.

Women during the Great Depression had a strong advocate in First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, who lobbied her husband for more women in officelike Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, the first woman to ever hold a cabinet position.

Jobs available to women paid less, but were more stable during the banking crisis: nursing, teaching and domestic work. They were supplanted by an increase in secretarial roles in FDRs rapidly-expanding government. But there was a catch: over 25 percent of the National Recovery Administrations wage codes set lower wages for women, and jobs created under the WPA confined women to fields like sewing and nursing that paid less than roles reserved for men.

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