Tuesday, April 16, 2024

Major Depressive Disorder Is Diagnosed When A Person Experiences

Prevalence Of Major Depressive Episode Among Adolescents

What is Major Depressive Disorder?
  • Figure 2 shows the past year prevalence of major depressive episode among U.S. adolescents in 2020.
  • An estimated 4.1 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in the United States had at least one major depressive episode. This number represented 17.0% of the U.S. population aged 12 to 17.
  • The prevalence of major depressive episode was higher among adolescent females compared to males .
  • The prevalence of major depressive episode was highest among adolescents reporting two or more races .

Figure 2

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race all other racial/ethnic groups are non-Hispanic. Note: Estimates for Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander and American Indian / Alaskan Native groups are not reported in the above figure due to low precision of data collection in 2020.

2 or more Races 29.9

*Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race all other racial/ethnic groups are non-Hispanic. Note: Estimates for Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander and American Indian / Alaskan Native groups are not reported in the above figure due to low precision of data collection in 2020.

When Should I See My Healthcare Provider About A Mood Disorder

If you or your child are experiencing symptoms of a mood disorder, talk to a healthcare provider.

If youve been diagnosed with a mood disorder, youll likely need to see your provider and/or mental health professional regularly to make sure your treatment plan is working.

Discuss any concerns you have about changing or stopping medications with your provider or another health professional. Ask them whether you might need to try a different medication or have the dosage adjusted if the one youre taking isnt working or causes unpleasant side effects.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Its important to remember that mood disorders are mental health conditions. As with all mental health conditions, seeking help as soon as symptoms appear can help decrease the disruptions to your life. Mental health professionals can offer treatment plans that can help you manage your symptoms.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 08/04/2022.


What You Can Do: Daily Habits Make A Difference

These healthy lifestyle habits, along with professional treatment, can help you manage the symptoms of major depression:

Treatment Works. SAMHSA Can Help You Find It.

Effective treatments for major depressive disorder are available in your area. The earlier that you begin treatment, the greater likelihood of a better outcome. For confidential and anonymous help finding a specialty program near you, visit SAMHSAs Early Serious Mental Illness Treatment Locator.

If you, or someone you know, need help to stop using substances whether the problem is methamphetamine, alcohol or another drug call SAMHSAs National Helpline at or TTY: , or text your zip code to 435748 , or use the SAMHSAs Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator to get help.

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Can Major Depression Be Prevented

Once you have had an episode of major depression, you are at high risk of having another. The best way to prevent another episode of depression is to be aware of the triggers or causes of major depression and to continue taking the prescribed medication to avoid relapse. It is also important to know what the symptoms of major depression are and to talk with your doctor early if you have any of these symptoms.

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Our Depression Treatment Can Help

Clinical Depression: Symptoms and Sub

Regardless of whether you have MDD or PDD, both conditions can be impairing and difficult to manage without professional care. Depression of any level is a life-changing condition that requires the steady, constant, and evidence-based treatment offered at Banyan Mental Health.

If you or someone you care about has depression or any other form of mental illness, our PHP or residential mental health program can help. Our specialists take the time to get to know our clients and determine which care plans work best for them. We will work with you or a loved one every step of the way to set them up for a happy and successful life after treatment.

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Causes Of Major Depressive Disorder

Depression is caused by an imbalance of chemicals, known as neurotransmitters, in the brain.

Certain genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors can increase the chances of someone developing depression however, its important to remember that anyone can develop depression.

The potential causes and risk factors for depression include:

Major Depressive Disorder Statistics

Major depressive disorder also known as unipolar depression or clinical depression is a mental health condition that can affect a significant part of your life, including your mood, behavior, thoughts, sleep, and appetite. Major depressive disorder brings feelings of sadness and causes you to lose interest in activities you once enjoyed. It impacts your ability to function effectively at home and at work, and may also lead to other emotional and physical issues. A major depressive episode may occur just once in a persons life or might happen more frequently.

Statistics from the National Institute of Mental Health show that an estimated 17.3 million U.S. adults experienced major depressive disorder symptoms in 2017, representing 7.1%of the adult population. From these figures, it was also revealed that major depressive episodes were more prevalent in adult females:8.7%of females had at least one episode compared to the 5.3% of adult males.

Additionally, according to these statistics, over 65% of adults receive treatment for major depressive disorder symptoms by a mental health professional and with prescribed medication, while 35%of adults do not receive treatment at all. Although there has been remarkable advances in depression treatment over the years, the stigma attached to depression remains, causing many to avoid treatment, even when they would likely benefit from it.

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Major Depression Diagnosis And Treatment

A clinical depression diagnosis is often based on several factors. Your healthcare provider may conduct a physical exam and blood work in order to rule out any underlying health problems that could be causing the symptoms. Youâll also be asked to complete a self-reported psychiatric evaluation, such as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 , so that your provider can better understand your symptoms, thoughts, feelings and behaviors.

Fortunately, major depression is treatable with access to therapy, psychiatric medications, and lifestyle changes. And in fact, treatment with both medications and psychotherapy has been found to be more effective than either of these treatments on their own.

What Is The Prognosis For Mood Disorders

Expert Perspectives on a Patient’s Journey With Major Depressive Disorder

The prognosis for mood disorders depends on several factors, including:

  • The type of condition and its severity.
  • How early its diagnosed.
  • If its properly treated.

Depression and bipolar disorder may recur or be ongoing and, therefore, may require long-term or lifetime treatment.

About one-third of people with a mood disorder develop psychotic disorders, and another one-third develop a lifetime anxiety disorder.

Children and adults with a mood disorder have an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Seek help immediately if you have thoughts of harming yourself or others. If you live in the United States, you can call 988 for help. Its the number for the Suicide & Crisis Lifeline. Someone will be available to talk to you at any time of the day.

People with mood disorders also have an increased risk of the following:

  • Disability ranging from mild to complete inability to care for oneself and maintain social interactions.
  • Missing work or school.
  • Alcohol use disorder.
  • Substance use disorder.

Its important to remember that mood disorders are treatable. Even though it may take a while to find the right treatment plan for you, stay committed to feeling better.

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How Is Major Depressive Disorder Treated

MDD is often treated with medication and psychotherapy. Some lifestyle adjustments can also help ease certain symptoms.

People who have severe MDD or have thoughts of harming themselves may need to stay in a hospital during treatment. Some might also need to take part in an outpatient treatment program until symptoms improve.

Poor Concentration Or Indecisiveness

Major depressive disorder is also marked by a persistently decreased ability to concentrate or focus, and a difficulty in making decisions. Those battling major depressive disorder may identify this symptom in themselves, or people around them may observe that theyre facing challenges in thinking with clarity and articulating themselves.

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What Is Major Depressive Disorder

Depression goes far beyond the occasional feelings of sadness. Sadness is a normal human emotion, and theres nothing wrong with feeling sad now and then, especially when theres a very obvious root cause, such as being passed up for a promotion or something even more tragic such as the loss of a loved one.

But when a person experiences constant sadness marked by feelings of intense loss of interest, hopelessness, and despair for a prolonged period of time, they are experiencing something much more severe such as major depressive disorder.

MDD may not be triggered by anything in particular. It not only diminishes your ability to enjoy things but it also leads to side effects that take a deeply emotional toll on the person with the condition.

Major depressive disorder can disrupt nearly every facet of your daily life, including your ability to sleep and wake up, eat, communicate, work, maintain healthy relationships, and care for yourself and your loved ones. Some people may have bouts of depression separated by years, while others may experience depression on an ongoing basis.

While there is often a fine line between prolonged sadness and depressionparticularly when bereavement is involved MDD is diagnosed and treated based on an established set of criteria by a psychiatrist, therapist, or other qualified specialists.

Genetics Biology And Environment

Major Depressive Disorder 101  Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment  Dr ...
  • Genetics: Like other mood disorders, genetics can cause clinical depression. People are more prone to the disorder if members of their family experienced it.
  • Biology: According to a 2018 article , changes in brain structure can occur as a person ages. This may increase the risk of depression.
  • Environment: Environmental factors such as trauma or a significant loss may trigger stress, anxiety, and depression in people who have genetic features that increase their risk.

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Symptoms Of Major Depressive Disorder

These are some of the symptoms of major depressive disorder you may experience:

  • Feeling sad or low
  • Having difficulty paying attention, remembering, or making decisions
  • Having difficulty sleeping, waking up too early, or oversleeping
  • Experiencing unplanned changes in eating habits and weight
  • Experiencing headaches, cramps, digestive issues, or other aches and pains that dont have a clear cause and dont get better with treatment
  • Talking about death, having thoughts of suicide, or attempting self-harm

Everyone experiences depression differently. While some people may have a few symptoms, others may have many. The frequency, severity, and duration of the symptoms can also vary from person to person.

Fatigue And Loss Of Energy

Major depressive disorder is typically associated with loss of energy and fatigue, sometimes even after a good nights rest. People who are dealing with major depression often have trouble sleeping, which can also cause extreme tiredness during the day.

Chronic fatigue syndrome is another condition that can occur alongside major depressive disorder symptoms, and it makes a person experience continuous feelings of exhaustion without any easily discernible cause. This condition can be a symptom of depression, but its not to be mistaken with depression.

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Major Depression Causes And Risk Factors

Now that you have a better understanding of the signs and symptoms, you might be asking yourself what causes major depressive disorder. Depression is a complex condition that can occur for a variety of reasonsâranging from your biology to your biography. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, clinical depression is often caused by a combination of environmental, psychological, and genetic factors.

Family history: Research suggests that individuals whose parents were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder are at significantly greater risk of developing major depression themselves. The data also found that factors such as substance use, poor academic performance, poor parent-child relationship, and childhood abuse by age 11 increased the risk of a major depression diagnosis.

Habits and lifestyle:Smoking, alcohol use, high BMI, poor sleep, and sedentary behavior have all been linked to increased rates of major depressive disorder in adolescents. Results from a 2020 national study suggest that among individuals who engaged in these habits, prevalence of major depression significantly increased among adolescents from 13 years to 16 years, and was more common among females.

Tips For Living Well With Major Depressive Disorder

Seven Myths about Major Depressive Disorder

Living with major depression can feel lonely. People may be fearful or ashamed of being labeled with a serious mental illness, causing them to suffer in silence, rather than get help. In fact, most people with major depression never seek the right treatment. But those struggling with this illness are not alone. Its one of the most common and most treatable mental health disorders. With early, continuous treatment, people can gain control of their symptoms, feel better, and get back to enjoying their lives.

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Who Is At Risk For Depression

Depression can affect anyone, no matter their age, gender or circumstances. About 16 million Americans experience depression each year.

Women may experience depression more often than men. And your genetics or other health conditions can increase the likelihood that youll have at least one depressive episode in your lifetime.

What Are The Symptoms Of Depression

Depression can affect your emotions, mind and body. Depression symptoms include:

  • Feeling very sad, hopeless or worried.
  • Not enjoying things that used to give you joy.
  • Being easily irritated or frustrated.
  • Eating too much or too little.
  • Changes in how much you sleep.
  • Having a difficult time concentrating or remembering things.
  • Experiencing physical problems like headache, stomachache or sexual dysfunction.
  • Thinking about hurting or killing yourself.

If you or someone you know has thoughts of hurting themselves, please call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800.273.8255. This national network of local crisis centers provides free, private emotional support to people in suicidal crisis or emotional distress 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

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What Is A Mood Disorder

A mood disorder is a mental health condition that primarily affects your emotional state. Its a disorder in which you experience long periods of extreme happiness, extreme sadness or both. Certain mood disorders involve other persistent emotions, such as anger and irritability.

Its normal for your mood to change, depending on the situation. However, for a mood disorder diagnosis, symptoms must be present for several weeks or longer. Mood disorders can cause changes in your behavior and can affect your ability to perform routine activities, such as work or school.

Two of the most common mood disorders are depression and bipolar disorder.

Treating Major Depressive Disorder

About Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Symptoms

While depression is a serious condition, it can be treated. In fact, between 80% to 90% of people with depression respond well to treatment, and almost all patients get some relief from their symptoms.

Its important to seek treatment for depression as soon as possible, because the earlier it is treated, the more effective the treatment can be. Ignoring the symptoms of depression and leaving it untreated can lead to self-harm or death.

Treatment for depression may involve medication, therapy, or brain stimulation. The treatment modalities chosen can depend on the severity of the depression and your individual needs.

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Managing Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms

Major depression is a highly treatable condition, as many people respond positively to treatment and discover strategies to help manage their symptoms.

Major depression can be diagnosed after a mental health professional carries out a diagnostic assessment that includes an interview and a physical examination. A blood test may also be done to rule out the possibility that the symptoms are due to another condition like a vitamin deficiency. This assessment also helps indicate specific symptoms and how medical histories and other cultural or environmental factors can influence the diagnosis.

When major depression is diagnosed, treatment may consist of prescribed medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of the two.

Antidepressants can be prescribed to help improve any imbalance in brain chemistry that may contribute to depression. Psychotherapy also called talk therapy may be used alone for treatment of major depressive disorder symptoms, or along with prescribed antidepressants. Cognitive behavioral therapy , which focuses on a problem-solving approach to treatment, is an effective and often-used way to manage depression.

If you feel little or no improvement after several weeks, or youre experiencing side effects, its important to let your doctor know so your treatment can be altered or substituted with another approach.

Depression And Addiction Risk Factors

Research indicates that depression is likely caused by a combination of factors. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, genetic, environmental, biological, and psychological factors all have the potential to contribute to the development of MDD.1

While it is not possible to predict exactly who will be impacted by depression, certain risk factors for MDD do exist. Factors may include:1,2

  • Past experience with depression or other mental illnesses.
  • Family history of depression, bipolar disorder, suicide, or alcoholism.
  • Significant life changes.

A clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder requires that the individual experiences at least 5 of these symptoms in a 2-week period .3 With the exception of thoughts of death suicidal ideations, plan, or attempt or weight changes, a symptom must be present nearly every day to be counted. major depressive disorder symptoms must be a change from prior functioning and cannot be due to another medical or mental health condition or caused by a substance. They must also cause significant distress or impair functioning and cannot be an appropriate response to a significant loss.

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