Saturday, April 13, 2024

Mood Altering Drugs For Depression

Antidepressant Addiction And Abuse

Mood altering drugs are called

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Complementary And Alternative Medicine

Increasing attention is being paid worldwide to more traditional medical systems, including Ayurveda, yoga, naturopathy, Unani medicine, Siddha, and homeopathy. Use of CAM therapies in various illnesses is on the rise. Perron et al found that barriers to conventional treatment have contributed to the increased use of CAM in mentally ill patients. Another study found that use of CAM was unaffected by the perceived effectiveness of conventional treatment or compliance with medication among persons with bipolar disorder. There are now more than 120 CAM treatments available , all of which involve body, mind, and spiritual concepts. This classification of various therapies, and designated by mind, body, or spirit, is perceived as strict compartmentalization, but many of the therapies mentioned have double or triple designations in terms of our theoretical understanding of diagnosis, treatment, and causal mechanisms. Another reason for increasing use of CAM is the positive findings of studies in patients with major depression. Many clinical trials of CAM are presently under way worldwide, and are expected to yield positive results in patients with major depression and other mood disorders.

Gabapentin Overdose And Toxicity

Its possible to fatally overdose on gabapentin. Reports of gabapentin being abused alone, and with opioids, prompted the FDA to release a warning statement about the fatal risk of respiratory depression. Signs of overdose include:

  • Ataxia
  • Slurred speech

If you suspect an overdose, you need immediate medical treatment. The only way to remove the drug is through kidney dialysis in the emergency room.

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Why It May Be Useful To Test The Efficacy Of Phentermine For Depression

As of current there are no published trials that have investigated the safety and efficacy of phentermine as an antidepressant in humans. There are numerous reasons as to why phentermine hasnt been subject to investigation as an antidepressant including: potential for abuse and dependence, lack of effect upon the CNS, long-term effect profile, as well as the fact that it may further aggravate preexisting depressive symptoms. Despite these risks, some may argue that it may be worth exploring phentermines therapeutic potential for the treatment of depression.

A notable reason as to why phentermine warrants additional research as an antidepressant is that it may prove helpful in the ~one-third of patients suffering from refractory depression. For these individuals, traditional pharmaceuticals provide limited or no benefit and alternative pharmacology is generally welcomed. Another reason as to why phentermine may be worthy of further investigation for depression is due to the common comorbidity of obesity among those with depression.

How Do Mood Stabilizers Work

Antidepressants and other mood

Your brain balance and stability are affected primarily by the neurotransmitters: epinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. These chemicals affect the way your brain tells you to react to your environment, and if they are out of balance they can tell you things that are not conducive to quality of life and good relationships.

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All these chemicals are affected by each other and the hormones in your body signaling you how to feel about what is happening. Here are some examples to give you an idea of how they affect your mood and mental state:

Low serotonin: Life is NOT good.

High serotonin: Life is good.

Low epinephrine: Dont do anything

High epinephrin: Do something now.

Low serotonin and high epinephrine: Something is wrong and you need to act now .

Low serotonin and low epinephrine: Life sucks and I cant do anything about it .

Dopamine, on the other hand, gives you motivation and focus. Low or high dopamine levels can prevent your ability to see clearly what is effecting you. It is less important to stabilize your mood than it is to know if you are in a stable mood or not.

I give recommendations at the end of the article for daily tonic herbs that can promote mental balance and clarity. Myself and countless other health enthusiasts have found fabulous benefits from these herbal remedies as mood stabilizers.

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How Soon Do Symptoms Develop

Substance/medication-induced mood disorder symptoms can start either immediately after use, develop with chronic use, or may occur as a result of withdrawal from the substance or medication.

The SAMHSA report, however, notes that patients vary in how they respond to substances, both with intoxication and withdrawal.

Very often, people are using more than one substance at a time, which can complicate how an individuals symptoms are interpreted and diagnosed.

For example, a person who is a regular alcohol drinker may be prescribed blood pressure medication. Either substance, as well as the combination of the two, can lead to substance-induced mood disorder symptoms.

Most substance-induced symptoms, they write, begin to improve within hours or days after substance use has stopped.

Women Who Are Pregnant Or Who May Become Pregnant

The research on the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy is limited. The risks are different depending on which medication is taken, and at what point during the pregnancy the medication is taken. Decisions on treatments for all conditions during pregnancy should be based on each woman’s needs and circumstances, and based on a careful weighing of the likely benefits and risks of all available options, including psychotherapy , medication, or a combination of the two. While no medication is considered perfectly safe for all women at all stages of pregnancy, this must be balanced for each woman against the fact that untreated serious mental disorders themselves can pose a risk to a pregnant woman and her developing fetus. Medications should be selected based on available scientific research, and they should be taken at the lowest possible dose. Pregnant women should have a medical professional who will watch them closely throughout their pregnancy and after delivery.

Most women should avoid certain medications during pregnancy. For example:

Antidepressants, especially SSRIs, are considered to be safe during pregnancy. However, antidepressant medications do cross the placental barrier and may reach the fetus. Birth defects or other problems are possible, but they are very rare. The effects of antidepressants on childhood development remain under study.

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How Are Antidepressant Medications Selected

The type of drug prescribed will depend on your symptoms, the presence of other medical conditions, other medicines you are currently taking, the cost of the prescribed treatments, and potential side effects. If you have had depression before, your provider may prescribe the same medicine that worked for you in the past. If you have a family history of depression, medicines that have been effective in treating your family member may also be considered.

Usually you will start taking the medicine at a low dose. The dose will be gradually increased until it has reached the therapeutic dose, or until you start to see an improvement .

Choline In Bipolar Disorder

Psychedelic to Psychoactive: A New Treatment for Depression | John Sharp | TEDxBoston

Choline has been used effectively in ameliorating symptoms of mania. A small, open-label study of six patients with treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder and stabilized on lithium found that addition of free choline 20007200 mg/day resulted in improvement of manic symptoms, although the impact on depression was variable. A randomized controlled trial of oral choline in rapid cycling bipolar patients treated with lithium reported significantly decreased purine levels in the brain over a 12-week period, which was related to the anti-manic effects of choline. Oral administration of exogenous choline increased synthesis of phospholipids in the cell membrane and corrected the mitochondrial component of diathesis in patients with bipolar disorder inadequately meeting the demand for increased adenosine triphosphate production. Thus, choline supplementation in small studies was effective for improving manic symptoms in bipolar patients, although larger studies are needed before recommending use of oral choline in the treatment of mania in bipolar I disorder.

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Can Drugs Cure Mental Illness

Drugs cannot cure mental illnesses. Rather, they work to control many of the most troubling symptoms, often enabling people with mental disorders to return to normal or near-normal functioning. Reducing symptoms with medication can also enhance the effectiveness of other treatments, such as psychotherapy .

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Biological Mechanisms Behind Antibiotic

Antibiotic-induced mood changes could include symptoms such as depression, anxiety, emotional instability, irritability, aggression, panic attacks, insomnia, brain fog, fatigue, mood swings, memory issues etc.

While there is no definite understanding as to how antibiotics may cause depression, anxiety, mood swings and other mental health symptoms, here are a few scientific evidences that can help build the hypothesis.

While I have cited a few studies that support these observations, I have also read a few studies that show contrasting findings.

Yes some antibiotics are found to relieve depressive symptoms and this may be linked with their structure and chemical properties as well as dosage.

However, it is pretty clear that in one way or another, antibiotics can affect our mood.

1.They disrupt the balance of various microbial populations in the gut

This, in turn, disturbs the various pathways by which the gut is linked to brain health and impacts our mood negatively.

However, after cessation of the antibiotic therapy, the microbes do recover.

2.They impair metabolism of sugar, amino acid and fats

By disrupting gut microbes, antibiotics impair the activity of pathways involved in sugar, fats and amino acid metabolism. This may affect protein and nucleic acid synthesis.

Amino acids serve as precursors for neurotransmitter synthesis. Hence disturbance in their metabolism can affect mood and brain function adversely.

3.They disrupt hormone synthesis

  • GABA
  • Glutamate
  • Monoamines

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Ayurvedic Medicine In Mood Disorders

Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient healing system used in India, which is now practiced worldwide. Ayurveda denotes longevity. The theory of Ayurveda is based on balancing the individuals three constitutional doshas, ie, vata, pitta, and kappa, which arise from five elements of ancient philosophy, being fire, water, air, earth, and space. It is believed that health or sickness depends on the presence or absence of a balanced state. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as an indiscriminate diet, undesirable habits, not observing the rules of healthy living, seasonal abnormalities, lack of exercise, and misuse of body and mind can result in lack of balance in the body. Ayurvedic medicine includes several treatment options, which balance three disturbed doshas . Diagnosis is based on a comprehensive history, detailed physical examination, measurement of vital signs including pulse, and relevant laboratory tests. Ashwagandha, along with combinations of herbs, such as Amrit kalash and mentat, and antidepressants can be used in depressed patients.,

More Than A Happiness Boost: How Mood Medications Help When Youre Depressed

Parkinsons, anti

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Antidepressants can help reduce insomnia, loss of appetite, and fatigue associated with depression.

When your doctor recommends an antidepressant to fight depressionsuch as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors its about more than just boosting your mood. Depression has many potential physical effects. Most people arent aware that depression can lead to other health problems, says Dr. Amanda Hernandez, a geriatrician at Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital.

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Inositol In Bipolar Disorder

Inositol, a glucose isomer precursor of phosphatidyl inositol linked to the second messenger system, has been found to be more effective than placebo in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric illnesses, including panic disorder. Doses in the relevant studies have ranged from 12,000 to 20,000 mg/day. Inositol, a vitamin-like substance found in many plants and animals, can be produced synthetically. A randomized controlled trial in 24 bipolar patients given inositol or placebo found no significant differences between the treatment groups. However, a trend towards improvement on inositol led researchers to recommend that larger studies be performed. Another study of 66 bipolar I or II patients with resistant depression examined the benefits of augmenting mood stabilizers with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidone, and found that the rate of recovery was 23.8% with lamotrigine, 17.4% with inositol, and 4.6% with risperidone. Nierenberg et al suggested that patients with treatment-resistant depression are suitable candidates for inositol augmentation. However, at therapeutic doses, inositol frequently causes flatulence and occasionally induces mania.

Your Mood Swings May Be Getting Worse Because Of These Prescription Drugs Side Effects

Mood swings are universal theyre not just limited to people who have bipolar disorder or manic depression. Oscillations in emotion and self-esteem are part of daily life for the average person, and youve probably experienced these emotional bumps fairly often.

A mood swing can consist of a small change in emotional perception, which can be triggered by a minor event, like missing a train or unexpectedly getting bad grade on a test. But drastic and frequent mood swings are usually caused by deeper issues, such as depressive diseases, low self-esteem, unhealthy diet, alcoholism, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system or even the side effects of certain medications.

No drugs are entirely exempt from pestering side effects. Typically, medications that alter brain chemistry and mess with the normal balance of neurotransmitters can lead to mood swings. Some of these important neurotransmitters include norepinephrine one that deals with learning, memory, and physical arousal as well as serotonin, which reigns over emotion and sleep. If norepinephrine and serotonin are out of sorts, mood swings are likely to happen. Below are some examples of prescription medications that can trigger mood swings.

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Complete List Of Mood Stabilizers: Types Uses Side

There is a whole list of mood stabilizers, and they are all slightly different. Medical professionals group these drugs together because they help to stabilize mood and prevent, manage or reduce depressive and manic episodes in people with bipolar disorder. The effectiveness, side-effects and recommended doses of these drugs vary, and many people want to explore their options before committing to a course of treatment. Here is a mood stabilizers medication list, as well as some important facts about each medication.

Vitamins In Mood Disorders

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In summary, clinical trials of vitamin B and folate have yielded equivocal results in patients with major depression. Although methylfolate and vitamin B have favorable safety profiles, allergic reactions may occur using these substances. Folate and vitamin B reduce homocysteine levels, so may be cardioprotective. However, combination of these vitamins may cause restenosis of stents in men by stimulating endothelial proliferation, although this effect has not been seen in women.

Other nutrients commonly used in CAM include omega-3 fatty acids, choline, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, inositol, and N-acetylcysteine. These substances are important in functioning of the neural networks involved in mood regulation.

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Does Alcohol Affect My Mood Stabiliser

Alcohol is not recommended when using some mood stabilisers.

Drinking alcohol whilst taking valproate can increase your risk of liver damage. And drinking alcohol whilst taking lamotrigine can affect your ability to perform skilled tasks, such as driving.

Your doctor should talk to you about how alcohol may affect your medication.

What Else Should I Consider Before Taking Mood Stabilisers


Medication can affect sexual desire , arousal and your ability to have an orgasm. If this happens, talk to your doctor. Changing the dose could help with this problem.


If you are thinking of trying for a baby, speak to your doctor about your medication.

Your doctor should give you information about the effects that medications can have during pregnancy.

If you are pregnant and need to take a mood stabiliser speak to your doctor. Some mood stabilisers can cause problems if you take them whilst you are pregnant. It is important that any decision about treatment during pregnancy weighs up the individual risks and benefits.

LithiumTaking lithium during pregnancy can cause heart problems in the foetus. Lithium should be not be taken when you are pregnant if possible.

ValproateValproate can harm an unborn baby. It can cause birth defects such as:

  • spina bifida,
  • problems with forming the face and skull, and
  • problems forming the limbs, heart, kidney, urinary tract and sexual organs.

It can also cause developmental and learning problems such as:

  • being late in learning to walk and talk,
  • lower intelligence than other children of the same age,
  • poor speech and language skills, and
  • memory problems.

Children are also more likely to have autism or autistic spectrum disorders and signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder .

LamotrigineNICE guidleines say that you should tell your doctor if you are pregnant and taking lamotrigine.

Breast feeding

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Antibiotics As Antidepressants: Can Antibiotics Treat Major Depressive Disorder

Earlier I told you, that the exact mechanism by which antibiotics modulate mood is not known.

While some studies show that could negatively impact our mood, some depict the opposite.

Surprising enough, researchers have looked at the therapeutic potential of antibiotics for relieving depressive symptoms.

This dual effect of antibiotics could be dose dependent or related to their structure or class to which they belong .

Multiple studies in animal models of depression have found that certain antibiotics such as doxycycline, ceftriaxone, beta-lactam antibiotics, modified quinolone antibiotics, linezolid mediate an antidepressant effect.

They possibly act in the following ways:

  • Lowering inflammation
  • Reducing oxidative stress
  • Influencing BDNF levels
  • Influencing neurotransmitters or brain chemistry

A few have progressed to human studies as well. A study published in Journal of Affective Disorders, 2018 confirmed that minocycline shows a large antidepressant potential in comparison to placebo.

D-cycloserine is another antibiotic that also exerts an antidepressant effect. It acts on a receptor in the brain called NMDA receptor to influence neurotransmitter glutamate and GABA.

However, its dosing is very important, at certain doses it may worsen mental health conditions.

Researchers have also identified some antibiotics with eubiotic properties- these kill infectious bacteria and positively modulate our gut microflora.

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