What Are The Side Effects Of Antidepressants
Not everyone has side effects from antidepressants. But if you do have them, they’re usually mild and may get better over time as your body gets used to the new medicine.
The most common side effects from antidepressants include:
- Sexual problems, such as a lack of desire or ability to have sex
When thinking about side effects, it’s important to remember that there are also risks from not treating depression. Your provider can help you think through the pros and cons of all your options.
If you have any side effects from antidepressants, your provider may suggest ways to manage them while you wait to see if the antidepressant will work. If the side effects bother you too much, you may need to change antidepressants. But you should never change your dose or stop taking an antidepressant on your own.
If you have serious problems or notice any changes that worry you, such as new or worsening symptoms, unusual changes in your mood, or you start acting differently, call your provider right away.
In some cases, children, teenagers, and young adults under 25 may be more likely to think about hurting or killing themselves when starting antidepressants or when the dose is changed. Get medical help right away if this happens.
Why Is This Medication Prescribed
Escitalopram is used to treat depression in adults and children and teenagers 12 years of ago or older. Escitalopram is also used to treat generalized anxiety disorder in adults. Escitalopram is in a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors . It works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.
Questions To Ask Yourself And Your Doctor
- Is my depression adversely affecting my life enough to require drug treatment?
- Is medication the best option for treating my depression?
- Am I willing to tolerate unwanted side effects?
- What non-drug treatments might help my depression?
- Do I have the time and motivation to pursue other treatments such as therapy and self-help?
- What self-help strategies might reduce my depression?
- If I decide to take medication, should I pursue therapy and alternative treatments as well?
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What Are The Side Effects Of Antidepressant Medications
The provider prescribing your medicine will discuss its potential side effects with you. He or she will try to prescribe drug with the least number of side effects for your health condition. Sometimes, more than one medicine may be tried before the desired benefits are achieved.
You will be monitored closely so that your provider can detect the development of harmful side effects and make the necessary changes.
All medications not just antidepressants can cause side effects. Keep in mind that your provider prescribes the medication only if its expected benefits outweigh the risk of side effects.
Side effects, if they occur, are usually mild. Some side effects decrease after you have taken the drug for a while. However, if side effects don’t go away, they will once the drug is stopped. Be sure to discuss your concerns with your provider before taking any medicine.
Classes of antidepressant medications and common side effects
Currently there are six different classes of medications approved to treat depression. These are:
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors .
- Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors .
- Tricyclic antidepressants .
- Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors .
- Non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
- Increased sweating.
Non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists
- Feeling drunk.
- Lack of energy.
Drugs That Can Cause Depression
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Many people are not aware that certain prescription drugs that have been associated with the emergence or worsening of depression symptoms as a side effect, even in people who might not ordinarily be prone to depression. A 2018 study published in JAMA found that more than a third of U.S. adults are currently taking a prescription medication that could potentially cause depression or increase suicide risk.
Given that depression is so common in patients with medical illness, it is often difficult to establish with certainty if these medications are to blame for the mood symptoms. However it is important to be aware of these possible associations.
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Statins And Other Cholesterol
While statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs for lowering cholesterol, other drugs, such as fibrates, colesevelam, ezetimibe, and nicotinic acid can also be used for this purpose.
There have been some reports linking these drugs with depression. It is thought that these drugs may cause depression by lowering the levels of cholesterol in the brain, where it serves many important functions.
Common Side Effects Of Antidepressants
Antidepressants can improve the symptoms of depression, but, like all medications, they can also cause side effects. The frequency and severity of these side effects vary depending on the class of medication you’re taking.
Common side effects of antidepressants include:
- Sleep disturbances
- Weight gain
Antidepressants may also increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior , especially during the first few months of treatment, or when your dose is increased or decreased. Teens and young adults are especially at risk and should be monitored closely.
If you are having suicidal thoughts, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 for support and assistance from a trained counselor. If you or a loved one are in immediate danger, call 911.
For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database.
Side effects tend to be mild and go away as your body adjusts to the medication. If your side effects are severe or last for longer than a few weeks, your doctor may adjust your dosing or recommend a different antidepressant.
If and when you and your doctor decide to stop your medication, it’s important to wean off of most antidepressants slowly. If you suddenly stop taking one you can have withdrawal symptoms, such as mood swings, dizziness, flu-like symptoms, and headaches.
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Why Millions Of Women Are Hooked On The Happy Pills
Death and taxes used to be the only certainties in life. For British women, we can now add another one: depression. Statistics may show that one in four women becomes depressed at some time, but a magazine survey this week claims that more than half of British women have taken antidepressants.
Unofficially at least, depression is an expected life experience for women, slipped in somewhere between having children, looking after elderly parents and either divorce or retirement. Is life now so difficult for women that it’s normal to be depressed?
Claire Jones is 35 and has just come off antidepressants after a period of depression that started in January last year. ‘Everything just got on top of me. My boyfriend had had chronic back pain for some time and he had to take early retirement. He was always snapping at me and couldn’t help with the children. My three-year-old wouldn’t go to nursery without screaming, so I was constantly late for work. My oldest daughter kept getting chest infections so I was forever being called out of meetings to collect her from school.
‘I work in the leisure industry so everyone was meant to be nice and helpful, while I couldn’t stop crying. I’m sure I did need the antidepressants. But my mother says that, while she thinks I’m lucky to have career opportunities, it also makes life harder. So much more is expected of my generation. Many of my female friends have been on antidepressants.’
How many tablets do we take for the blues?
Which Antidepressant Works The Fastest
Unfortunately, all antidepressants take a few weeks to kick in. How fast an antidepressant starts working varies widely from person to person. Generally speaking, you can expect to experience some effects between 4 and 6 weeks after starting your medication. If you dont feel any change after 8 weeks of starting an antidepressant, contact your healthcare provider to let them know its not working.
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List Of Tricyclic Antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants are another older class of antidepressant. Antidepressants on this list are not generally chosen as first-line treatments as their risk of side effects is higher than some other types. The following is a list of tricyclic antidepressants:
Read about tricyclic antidepressants.
How Long Will You Have To Take Antidepressants
Usually, these drugs must be taken regularly for at least 4 to 8 weeks before their full benefit takes effect. You are monitored closely during this time to detect the development of side effects and to determine the effectiveness of treatment.
In order to prevent a relapse of depression, medicines are generally prescribed for 6 to 12 months after a first-time depression. When you and your provider determine that you are better, you should expect to continue the medication for at least 4 to 6 additional months. After this, your provider may gradually taper you off your medicine.
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Antidepressant Mechanisms Of Ketamine And Potential Biochemical Biomarkers
There has been suggestion that glutamatergic neurotransmission is dysregulated in MDD., This is supported by findings of elevated serum and plasma glutamate levels in patients, and reduction of plasma glutamate levels following treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors . Of interest, the severity of depressive symptoms was found to be correlated with plasma glutamate levels. Elevation of extracellular glutamate in MDD may, in part, be caused by loss of glial cells that are responsible for glutamate/glutamine cycling. A consequence of increased extrasynaptic glutamate levels may actually be downstream suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission via activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 autoreceptors.
However, ketamines mechanism of action is more complex than antagonism of NDMA receptors. This is supported by the finding that other NMDA receptor antagonists such as memantine, lanicemine and nitrous oxide do not exert a consistent antidepressant effect in RCTs. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of single-infusion non-ketamine NMDA receptor antagonists, including traxoprodil, lanicemine and rapastinel , showed smaller effect sizes in depressive symptom change in comparison with ketamine and non-superiority in remission compared with placebo for unipolar and bipolar depression. It is likely that ketamines mechanism involves additional downstream targets, given that it is metabolized rapidly but demonstrates longer-lasting antidepressant effects .
Who Is At A Greater Risk For Depression
Depression can happen to anyone, but some groups have different risks than others. There are known healthcare disparities that historically underrepresented communities face having less access to mental health services is one of them.
In the U.S., Black adults experience feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, and sadness more often than white adults. But only a third of Black adults who need mental health treatment receive care.
Talking about mental health struggles can often carry a lot of social stigma. These feelings of shame or embarrassment can prevent a person from getting the help they need. A study from the National Mental Health Association found that 63% of Black adults believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness.
These beliefs combined with racial trauma and less access to healthcare put the Black community at a higher risk for many health problems. In fact, Black Americans are 20% more likely than the general population to have more serious mental health conditions.
Were here to say youre not alone. Knowing how to find the right therapist is an important step. Understanding the antidepressants that are often prescribed is important too.
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How To Use Aplenzin 522 Mg Tabletextended Release Antidepressant Dopamine Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
Read the Medication Guide provided by your pharmacist before you start using bupropion and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually once daily in the morning. If you have stomach upset, you may take this medication with or after a meal or snack. Taking this medication late in the day may cause trouble sleeping . Take this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day.
Do not crush or chew extended-release tablets. Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, do not split the tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing.
The dosage is based on your medical condition, liver function, and response to treatment. To reduce your risk of side effects, your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Do not increase your dose or use this drug more often or for longer than prescribed. Your condition will not improve any faster, and your risk of side effects will increase.
Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Your dose may need to be gradually decreased.
Stomach Acid Drugs May Cause Depression
A new study now published in the journal Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics has found a link between a common class of stomach drugs called proton pump inhibitors and depression. The researchers suggest that the pills might lead to major depressive disorder by disrupting the guts bacteria.
More and more studies are now pointing to the numerous ways in which our gut bacteria may influence both our mental and emotional well-being.
For instance, researchers have found that germ-free mice that had been deprived of beneficial gut bacteria displayed symptoms of anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment.
Since the bacteria in our gut can alter the function of our brain by producing certain hormones or neurotransmitters and emotional responses can, in turn, affect our gut bacteria it should come as no surprise that some studies have found a link between post-traumatic stress disorder and certain strains of bacteria.
Other studies have not only pinpointed specific bacteria whose absence can trigger symptoms of depression in rodents, but they have also shown that supplementing said bacteria can reverse signs of depression.
Now, an observational study suggests that proton pump inhibitors which are a class of drugs typically prescribed to treat acid-related stomach conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease increase the risk of developing major depressive disorder.
This is the leading cause of disability both in the United States and worldwide.
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How Does Esketamine Treat Depression
Esketamine, and its related drug ketamine, are highly effective depression treatments for a number of reasons:
Esketamines antidepressant function works through a different mechanism than other drugs. Conventional antidepressants increase levels of naturally occurring chemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. These chemicals are messengers that relay communication between brain cells. The theory is that having greater quantities of these neurotransmitters allows for better communication between brain cells and positively affects mood.
Esketamine works in a similar fashion, but unlike other antidepressants it increases levels of glutamate, the most abundant chemical messenger in the brain. The result? A greater impact on more brain cells at one time.
Path To Improved Health
Prescription antidepressant medicines are sorted into types. They are based on which chemicals in the brain they affect. Neurotransmitters are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout your brain and body.
Your doctor may prescribe an antidepressant to treat your depression symptoms. Below are the different types of prescription medicines that regulate the levels of different neurotransmitters in your brain.
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How Do Antidepressants Work
Various antidepressant medications are available for prescription use. There is no single best antidepressant, and the best one for you depends on your symptoms and individual needs.
Usually, antidepressants help balance the levels of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals responsible for communications between neurons in the brain. These chemicals include serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Higher levels of these chemicals usually correspond with lower levels of depression.
While antidepressants can be helpful in depression, effectiveness varies from patient to patient. How long the drugs stay in your body also varies. Some drugs stay in your body for about 36 hours, while others last as long as several days.
Who Is A Good Candidate For Esketamine Therapy
Currently, esketamine is approved for people with treatment-resistant depression. That means youve tried at least two other antidepressants and havent experienced remission or at least a 50% improvement in mood.
For people who havent had success with other antidepressants, esketamine gives them the chance to see what its like to not have depression, says Kaplin. It gives them hope that they can feel better with the right treatment.
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What Are Side Effects Of Antidepressants
Antidepressants that belong to the same class of antidepressant produce similar side effects. Antidepressants may cause withdrawal symptoms if abruptly discontinued. Withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, irritability, sleep disturbance, nightmares, psychosis, and seizures. All antidepressants have a warning about use in children and adolescents. Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking, and suicidal behavior in short-term studies in children and adolescents with depression and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of antidepressant in a child or adolescent must balance this risk of suicide with the clinical need for the drug. Patients who are started on therapy should be closely observed for clinical worsening, suicidal thoughts or unusual changes in behavior.