Causes And Risk Factors Of Recurrent Depressive Disorder
Although no specific cause of recurrent depressive disorder has been established, researchers believe that it can be related to genetics, hormones, and brain chemistry.3 Additionally, those who have depression have been shown to have physiological differences in their brains compared to those without depression.
Because there is such a high recurrence rate for depressive disorders, extensive research has been done in this area. While many risk factors have been studied to determine if an individual will experience a recurrence of depressive episodes, studies have identified only a few that may show an indication for recurrent depression:3
- severity of first depressive episode
- comorbid conditions, such as major depression, dysthymia , and anxiety
- proneness to psychological distress
- stressful life events
- family history of mental illness, especially depression
Some studies have found that those who abuse drugs, have been discriminated against, or were abused as children may have a higher risk for developing recurrent depressive disorder.7
Can Anxiety And Depression Lead To Psychosis
Around 27% of those with disorders of anxiety and depression displayed one or more psychotic symptoms, vs 14% in those without these disorders .
What is a recurrent episode in brief depression?
A recurrent episode in brief depression has repeated or multiple episodes of depression and no history of an independent episode or mania . To diagnose a recurrent episode, there should be at least one episode that lasted for two or more weeks and must be at least two months before the recent episode started.
Major Depressive Disorder Medication And Treatment Protocols
Lets look at how to treat major depressive disorder effectively. Fortunately, this is something that mental health professionals know a lot about. The first line treatment for MDD is psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of the two. Evidence shows that the hybrid approach works better than just doing one or the other intervention.
Recommended Reading: What Is The Dsm 5 Code For Major Depressive Disorder
What Is Major Depressive Disorder
Major depressive disorder is a serious mental illness that affects how people feel, think, and go about their everyday tasks. The condition can also impact a persons sleep habits, appetite, and ability to enjoy life.
Major depressive disorder isnt something that eventually passes.
While most people feel sad at times in their lives, major depression is when a person is in a depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, for at least two weeks. Some people feel depressed without knowing why. The onset can happen at any age, but usually begins in adulthood. People may only have one depressive episode, but most have multiple episodes over time.
While the exact causes of major depression are unknown, some risk factors include a family history of depression and significant life events such as trauma, times of high stress, loss of a job or relationship, or the death of a loved one. People with a serious medical illness such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, or Parkinsons disease, may be at an increased risk of developing major depression.
Depressive Episodes With Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a different type of mood disorder that is characterized by a cycle of depressive episodes and manic episodes. Manic episodes are essentially the opposite of depression, during which a person feels euphoric, energized, and sleeps little and acts recklessly. The depressive episodes that precede or follow manic episodes can feel a lot like an episode of major depression.
Certain symptoms are more common in episodes of bipolar depression than major depression. Someone going through bipolar depression is more likely to feel irritable and guilty, to be restless and agitated, and to have unpredictable mood swings. Bipolar depression is also more likely to cause psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. Another important difference is that antidepressants may not help treat someone with bipolar disorder. In fact, these drugs may make periods of mania more likely. Instead, bipolar disorder is more often treated with mood stabilizing drugs.
Recommended Reading: What Should I Do For Depression
Psychotic Depression And The Brain
All forms of mental illness can be traced to brain abnormalities that inhibit clear thinking and perception and cause overstimulation in neural centers that impact mood and behavior. In men and women with psychotic depression, weak or uncoordinated activity in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis appears to play an influential role in the onset of the condition.
The HPA is a neurological feedback network that unites the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain with the adrenal gland near the kidneys. When the system operates smoothly, it helps facilitate normal reactions to stress, boosts immune function, promotes a balanced mood, regulates emotional responses, and aids the process of digestion.
However, medical studies indicate that dysfunctionality in the HPA is common among people with psychotic depression, which results in chronically elevated levels of the hormone cortisol, a potent chemical normally released in limited amounts in response to stress. Overabundance of cortisol indicates a high vulnerability to stress and anxiety, and that can ultimately leave a person vulnerable to depression and/or psychosis.
Major Depressive Disorder In Adults
Recurrent, mild F33.0
Recurrent, moderate F33.1
Major depressive disorder is part of a cluster of diagnoses called the depressive disorders. Depressive disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that include:
- Major depressive disorder
- Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
The depressive disorders are characterized primarily by mood disturbance . Individuals with depressive disorders often experience significant somatic changes, such as disruptions in sleep , eating , or energy level. Changes in cognition, such as difficulty concentrating, indecisiveness, and morbid ideation are also common.
Individuals with major depressive disorder experience pervasive sadness or anhedonia along with significant changes in somatic and/or cognitive functioning. To be diagnosed, these problems must be present nearly every day for at least two weeks. Individuals with persistent depressive disorder experience similar symptoms, including sad mood and problems with somatic and/or cognitive functioning that occur most days for at least two years. Individuals with premenstrual dysphoric disorder experience marked changes in mood and interpersonal functioning that begin sometime following ovulation and remit within a few days of the onset of menses. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is diagnosed in children under 12 years old who experience persistent irritability and extreme behavioral dyscontrol.
Major Depressive Disorder
You May Like: What Kind Of Therapist Deals With Depression
Can Depression Be Prevented
You can help prevent depression by getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet and practicing regular self-care activities such as exercise, meditation and yoga.
If youve had depression before, you may be more likely to experience it again. If you have depression symptoms, get help. Care can help you feel better sooner.
How Is Major Depressive Disorder Treated
Major depression can be treated, and early treatment can help to prevent future episodes. The evidence-based treatment guidelines from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology suggest that psychotherapy, including the family if possible, is the best approach with which to start.
For youth who are severely depressed and/or do not respond to a course of evidence-based psychotherapy, antidepressant therapy may be initiated. However, there is research suggesting that for some youth there are significant side effects associated with SSRI antidepressant medication and that the benefits are often minimal, so antidepressant therapy must be approached with caution and under the guidance of a child psychiatrist.
First Line Treatments
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy consists of challenging negative cognitions and increasing activity in order to counteract the destructive through patterns and withdrawal that are common among people with depression.
- Interpersonal therapy is based on the idea that relationships with other people can cause or prevent symptoms of depression. Treatment consists of identifying problem relationships, improving communication skills, using new skills to improve significant relationships.
Second Line Treatments
In cases of nonresponse to first-line treatment, alternative treatments with reasonable evidence of efficacy include:
Additional Treatments to Consider
Don’t Miss: How To Get Over Postpartum Depression Naturally
Epidemiology And Risk Factors
Major depression is a common disorder and is reported to have a lifetime prevalence of 16.2% and a prevalence of 6.6% for the past 12 months in U.S. adults, with an increased risk in women.4 The reason for increased rates of major depressive episodes in women is unclear, but it might include hormonal factors as well as differences in psychosocial stressors, and it is likely that the increased rates of both insomnia and depression in women are related. In contrast to major depression, bipolar I and II disorders each affect about 1% of the population and show no sexual predilection.5 Most bipolar disorder patients have at least one other DSM-IV comorbidity and are more likely to have a persistent course and severe impairment.5 Major depression and bipolar disorders have an onset in early adulthood the median age for major depression is 32 years and for bipolar disorders 18 to 20 years.5 Major depression and bipolar disorder both usually have recurrent episodes with recovery between episodes. However, increased number and severity of episodes and poorer interepisode recovery can lead to an overall worse prognosis, suggesting that chronic treatment may be beneficial for patients with recurrent illness.
Farideh Eskandari, … Giovanni Cizza, in, 2004
Diagnosing Major Depression With Psychotic Features
Since most depression sufferers dont exhibit psychotic symptoms, they can be easy for clinicians to miss if the patient doesnt report them in detail. An excessive focus on either the symptoms of depression or the symptoms of psychosis can also lead to an incomplete diagnosis.
But these types of errors are becoming increasingly rare. Awareness of the existence of psychotic depression has grown as research into the condition has progressed.
To be diagnosed with psychotic depression, a patient must display multiple symptoms of depression for at least two weeks, and the distinctive symptoms of psychosisnamely, delusions and/or hallucinationsmust also have been experienced during that time period. These standards are codified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , which lists major depression with psychotic features as a subtype of major depression.
Patients may be diagnosed with either mood-congruent or mood-incongruent psychotic depression, but this will not alter recommendations for treatment.
Recommended Reading: Major Depressive Disorder With Psychosis
Hcc Coding: Major Depressive Disorder Specificity Makes A Difference
Imagine this scenario: today you saw one of your established patients, who is usually in a pleasant and talkative mood, but something was different. At first, they were quiet, only answering questions with a yes or no response and seemed to be avoiding any direct eye contact. They appeared tired and looked like they had lost weight. How do you determine HCC coding?
Once you started asking questions about their appearance, the patient starting crying and revealed that since the last visit 6 months ago, their spouse of 30 years was diagnosed with lung cancer and bone metastasis and was given a life expectancy of 3 months.
Diagnostic And Statistical And Manual Of Mental Disorders Essay
DIAGNOSTIC IMPRESSIONClaimant s multi- axial assessment was established by using Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical and Manual of Mental Disorder. Claimant DSM-V multi- axial classification is as follows: Axis I:Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Severe Without Psychotic Features Generalized Anxiety DisorderAXIS II:DeferredAXIS III: Ewings Sarcoma Cancer, in remission AXIS IV:Problems Related To The Social Environment:
Also Check: What Being Depressed Feels Like
Tips For Living Well With Major Depressive Disorder
Living with major depression can feel lonely. People may be fearful or ashamed of being labeled with a serious mental illness, causing them to suffer in silence, rather than get help. In fact, most people with major depression never seek the right treatment. But those struggling with this illness are not alone. Its one of the most common and most treatable mental health disorders. With early, continuous treatment, people can gain control of their symptoms, feel better, and get back to enjoying their lives.
Major Depression A Chronic Illness
Major depression is a serious mental illness. It is classified as a mood disorder, which means that it is characterized by negative patterns in thoughts and emotions that dont line up with a persons actual circumstances. It is also a chronic mental illness. This means it is not curable and that it can come and go, sometimes for a persons entire life. Someone diagnosed with depression may feel fine for a long period of time and then have symptoms. The period during which someone experiences the symptoms is called a depressive episode.
Most people with major depression live with it as a chronic illness. Episodes come and go, although they may be made less severe and less frequent with good treatment. In some cases, though, a person may experience a singular episode of depression, just once in a lifetime. Often these episodes of depression are triggered by a situational event: a death in the family, the loss of a job or relationship, or some kind of trauma, like a physical assault. This single depressive episode may be just as serious as those experienced by someone with recurrent major depression, with all the same symptoms and persistence.
You May Like: Always Feeling Sad And Depressed
What Are The Symptoms Of Depression
Depression can affect your emotions, mind and body. Depression symptoms include:
- Feeling very sad, hopeless or worried.
- Not enjoying things that used to give you joy.
- Being easily irritated or frustrated.
- Eating too much or too little.
- Changes in how much you sleep.
- Having a difficult time concentrating or remembering things.
- Experiencing physical problems like headache, stomachache or sexual dysfunction.
- Thinking about hurting or killing yourself.
If you or someone you know has thoughts of hurting themselves, please call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800.273.8255. This national network of local crisis centers provides free, private emotional support to people in suicidal crisis or emotional distress 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
How Is Depression Diagnosed
Major depressive disorder needs to be diagnosed by a clinician. That clinician can be a mental health professional like a therapist, counselor, clinical social worker, or a psychiatrist, or they can be a physician of some kind. Many people with depression first present to their family doctor with physical complaints. For example, they might be experiencing inexplicable aches and pains, weight loss, or digestive issues. Physical symptoms of depression are your bodys way of saying, I need attention! So you go see a doctor, and hopefully your doctor will ask the right questions to get you the mental health care you need.
Or you might call a therapist, psychiatrist, or professional counselor who specializes in depression. A therapist will establish trust and rapport, then conduct a clinical interview to gather information about your medical history, family history, symptoms, and more. They will want to know if you know why youre so miserable. They will want to make sure you are safe and not at risk to yourself or others. You may also receive a physical examination to rule out any underlying medical conditions or additional causes for depression symptoms.
A diagnosis of major depressive disorder might come with further specification based on recurrence of episodes, severity of symptoms, presence of psychotic features, and status of remission.
The following are additional specifiers for depressive episodes:
- With anxious distress
- With peripartum onset
- With seasonal pattern
Also Check: Natural For Anxiety And Depression
Anew Era Tms & Psychiatry Top Tms Treatment Provider For Depression
Anew Era TMS & Psychiatry is a behavioral health provider that specializes in TMS therapy for treating major depression recurrent severe and relapsing. Located in Orange County, California, Anew Era TMS & Psychiatry features an expert team of psychiatrists, psychologists, and TMS technicians who can provide counseling services, antidepressants, and TMS therapy for patients who are seeking help for recurring depression. For more information about how TMS therapy can help you, please contact Anew Era TMS & Psychiatry today at 503-1549.
What Is Recurrent Depression
Nothing is so disheartening than repeated bouts of depression that negatively impact your quality of life. A major depressive episode may last 2 weeks or two years, and continue to haunt you will recurring episodes. Depression is considered recurrent if the symptoms present themselves after a period of remission. The severity of the depressive episodes can vary from mild depression to severe depression. This blog will focus on recurrent severe depressive episodes and how to treat the condition.
Recommended Reading: Where Can I Get Counselling For Depression
Major Depressive Disorder Causes
If there is a history of Major Depressive Disorder in close family members, and especially in immediate family members , then the risk for a major depressive episode will be three times more likely.
Biological causes such as levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, can cause depression or other symptoms if levels are low.
Obsession and compulsion due to serotonin deficiency Attention and anxiety with low levels of nor-epinephrine Attention, motivation, and pleasure with low levels of dopamine Other biological factors may include tryptophan deficiency, which the body uses to make serotonin
Loss of someone due to death or divorce Sexual or emotional abuse
Risk factors of Major Depressive Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder is not limited to adults and elderly populations. A substantial proportion of patients experience their first episode of major depression during their developmental years.
There are four major risk factors associated with major depression: Gender: major depression is higher in females than males Poor lifestyle Traumatic childhood experience Specific personality traits
Studies in the United States showed an estimation of 17% of the population has experienced or is experiencing major depression. Another study found that nearly 5% of the population reported meeting criteria for major depressive disorder in the last 30 days.
The Icd Code F33 Is Used To Code Major Depressive Disorder
Major depressive disorder is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The term “depression” is used in a number of different ways. It is often used to mean this syndrome but may refer to other mood disorders or simply to a low mood. Major depressive disorder is a disabling condition that adversely affects a person’s family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, around 3.4% of people with major depression die by suicide, and up to 60% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder.
You May Like: Depression How To Get Out Of It