What Are The Symptoms Of Depression
Common symptoms of depression include:
- Depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities.
- Weight loss or weight gain.
- Sleep disturbances .
- Problems with concentration.
- Apathy .
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt.
- Fatigue or loss of energy.
- Thoughts of death or suicide.
People can overlook the symptoms of depression, assuming that feeling depressed is normal for someone struggling with a serious, chronic illness. Symptoms of depression such as fatigue, poor appetite, reduced concentration and insomnia are also common features of chronic medical conditions. This makes it hard to decide if these symptoms are due to depression or to the underlying illness.
When a patient has a chronic medical illness and is also depressed, its extremely important to treat both the depression and the medical illness at the same time.
Why Depression And Medical Illnesses Often Occur Together
- Medical disorders may contribute biologically to depression.
- Medically ill people may become clinically depressed as a psychological reaction to the prognosis, the pain and/or incapacity caused by the illness or its treatment.
- Though occurring together, depression and a general medical disorder may be unrelated.
How Exactly To Look After Major Depression Due To General Medical Condition
Much less frequently, individuals with the opposite pattern have signs and symptoms that begin in spring or summer season. In either situation, symptoms may begin mild and come to be extra extreme as the period advances. Psychiatric therapy is a general term for treating depression by speaking about your problem as well as relevant problems with a psychological health expert. Psychiatric therapy is also referred to as talk treatment or psychological therapy major depression due to general medical condition. This state of mind condition in children consists of chronic as well as extreme irritability and also anger with regular extreme mood outbursts. This disorder generally develops into depressive condition or stress and anxiety problem during the teen years or their adult years. Psychotic depression isnt a different sort of depression, yet individuals experiencing a really serious depressive episode can in some cases have psychotic symptoms.
Obtain information on symptoms, indications, examinations, as well as therapies for lots of sorts of depression consisting of major depression, chronic depression, teen depression, and also major depression due to general medical condition postpartum depression. Depression in Children Childhood depression can interfere with social activities, interests, schoolwork as well as domesticity.
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Criteria Sets For Depressive Disorders
The Depressive Disorder criteria sets are derived from the DSM-5.
Major Despressive Disorder :
Five of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning at least one of the symptoms is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure.
Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to another medical condition.
The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or to another medical condition.
Note: Criteria A-C represent a Major Depressive Episode.
Persistent Depressive Disorder :
What Medical Conditions Can Cause Mood Disorders
Almost any severe medical condition can trigger a mood disorder under the right circumstances.3
Some well-known illnesses that can lead to a diagnosis of mood disorder caused by a general medical condition can include:
- Neurological disorders
- Heart attacks
- Inflammatory bowel disease
Sometimes, a physical illness begins at the same time a mood disorder happens to also begin. Other times, a severe physical illness may trigger a mental health disorder that was already about to begin. It is important to take time to work with your doctor and counselor to investigate every possible cause of any type of mood disorder. This may involve completing a round of blood work to see if vitamin levels, dehydration, or malnutrition have caused a change in mood. It may also mean thoroughly reviewing all medications and treatments for side-effects that may have caused an abrupt change in mood. When you are given the diagnosis of a mood disorder caused by a general medical condition, it is very important to take time to be sure that your mood disorder is actually caused by your physical ailment. This will allow you to treat your condition in the best and fastest way possible.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Major Depressive Disorder
Your doctor or a mental health professional can diagnose major depressive disorder based on your symptoms, feelings, and behaviors.
Typically, youll be asked specific questions or given a questionnaire so health professionals can better determine whether you have MDD or another condition.
To be diagnosed with MDD, you need to meet the symptom criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition . This manual helps medical professionals diagnose mental health conditions.
According to its criteria:
- you must experience a change in your previous functioning
- symptoms must occur for a period of 2 or more weeks
- at least one symptom is either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure
You must also experience 5 or more of the following symptoms in the 2-week period:
- You feel sad or irritable most of the day, nearly every day.
- Youre less interested in most activities you once enjoyed.
- You suddenly lose or gain weight or have a change in appetite.
- You have trouble falling asleep or want to sleep more than usual.
- You experience feelings of restlessness.
- You feel unusually tired and have a lack of energy.
- You feel worthless or guilty, often about things that wouldnt usually make you feel that way.
- You have difficulty concentrating, thinking, or making decisions.
- You think about harming yourself or suicide.
Symptoms parents should be aware of in their teens include the following:
Tips For Living With A Chronic Illness
Depression, disability, and chronic illness form a vicious cycle. Chronic medical conditions can bring on bouts of depression, which, in turn, get in the way of successful treatment of the disease.
Living with a chronic illness is a challenge, and it’s normal to feel grief and sadness as you come to grips with your condition and its implications. But if these feelings don’t go away, or you are having trouble sleeping or eating, or you’ve lost interest in the activities you normally enjoy, seek help.
To avoid depression:
- Try not to isolate yourself. Reach out to family and friends. If you don’t have a solid support system, take steps to build one. Ask your doctor or therapist about support groups and other community resources.
- Learn as much as you can about your condition. Knowledge is power when it comes to getting the best treatment available and keeping your sense of independence and control.
- Make sure that you have medical support from experts you trust and can talk to openly about your ongoing questions and concerns.
- If you suspect that your medication is bringing you down, talk to your doctor about other possible treatments.
- Talk with your doctor about pain management.
- As much as is possible, keep doing the things you like to do. You’ll stay connected as well as boost your self-confidence and sense of community.
- If you think you’re depressed, don’t wait to get help. Find a therapist or counselor you trust.
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Depression And Suicide: Getting Help In A Crisis
Some people who are depressed may think about hurting themselves or committing suicide . If you or someone you know is having thoughts about hurting themselves or committing suicide please seek immediate help. The following resources can help:
- Call to reach a 24hour crisis center or dial 911. is the National Suicide Prevention Lifelineexternal icon, which provides free confidential help to people in crisis. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrationexternal icon runs this lifeline.
- Get help from your primary doctor or other health care provider.
- Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
- Contact a minister, spiritual leader, or someone else in your faith community.
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What Causes Mood Disorders
Mood disorders have no single cause, but several risk factors interact to produce the clinical symptoms of the various mood disorders. Individuals with depression and bipolar disorder often find a history of these disorders among immediate family members.Footnote 3 ,Footnote 4 Many different genes may act together and in combination with other factors to cause a mood disorder. Research is getting closer to identifying the specific genes that contribute to depression.
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Key Points About Mood Disorders
A mood disorder is a mental health class that health professionals use to broadly describe all types of depression and bipolar disorders.
The most common types of mood disorders are major depression, dysthymia , bipolar disorder, mood disorder due to a general medical condition, and substance-induced mood disorder.
There is no clear cause of mood disorders. Healthcare providers think they are a result of chemical imbalances in the brain. Some types of mood disorders seem to run in families, but no genes have yet been linked to them.
In general, nearly everyone with a mood disorder has ongoing feelings of sadness, and may feel helpless, hopeless, and irritable. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years, and can impact quality of life.
Depression is most often treated with medicine, psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, or a combination of medicine and therapy. In some cases, other therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial stimulation may be used.
Physical Disease And Depressed Mood
Depression is a common, disturbing concomitant of medical conditions. The reported prevalence of major depressive episodes in physically ill patients varies from 5% to more than 40%. However, because depression is often unrecognized and undertreated in sick patients, the prevalence reported in most studies is probably an underestimate.
The high prevalence of depression in various medical conditions is reflected by the special psychiatric diagnosis of depression due to a general medical condition. To be diagnosed with this condition, the clinician should establish the presence of a general medical condition and determine that the depression is etiologically related to the general medical condition through a physiological mechanism. Several lines of evidence suggest that this mechanism involves the immune system. In other words, the depression associated with various medical conditions is not merely a reaction to the incapacitation, pain, and losses that accompany the physical disease process, but may be directly caused by activation of the immune system.,
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What Is Major Depressive Disorder
Sadness is a natural part of the human experience. People may feel sad or depressed when a loved one passes away or when theyre going through a life challenge, such as a divorce or serious illness.
These feelings are usually short-lived. When someone experiences persistent and intense feelings of sadness for extended periods, then they may have a mood disorder such as major depressive disorder .
MDD, also referred to as clinical depression, is a significant medical condition that can affect many areas of your life. It impacts mood and behavior as well as various physical functions, such as appetite and sleep.
MDD is one of the most common mental health conditions in the United States. Data suggests that more than 7.8 percent of U.S. adults experienced a major depressive episode in 2019.
Some people with MDD never seek treatment. However, most people with the disorder can learn to cope and function with treatment. Medications, psychotherapy, and other methods can effectively treat people with MDD and help them manage their symptoms.
Depression Due To A General Medical Condition
Depression can be caused by general medical conditions that affect the bodys regulatory systems, chronic illnesses, and even surgery. Research shows that physical illnesses increase the likelihood of depressive illness, including the following:
- Postpartum depression
A diagnosis of major depressive disorder is given if the mood disturbance is not judged to be the direct pathophysiological consequence of a medical condition based on laboratory findings, physical evaluation, and patient medical history.
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What Are The Treatments For Depression
Many helpful treatments for depression are available. Treatment for depression can help reduce symptoms and shorten how long the depression lasts. Treatment can include getting therapy and/or taking medications. Your doctor or a qualified mental health professional can help you determine what treatment is best for you.
- Therapy. Many people benefit from psychotherapyalso called therapy or counseling.7,8 Most therapy lasts for a short time and focuses on thoughts feelings and issues that are happening in your life now. In some cases understanding your past can help but finding ways to address what is happening in your life now can help you cope and prepare you for challenges in the future.With therapy, youll work with your therapist to learn skills to help you cope with life, change behaviors that are causing problems and find solutions. Do not feel shy or embarrassed about talking openly and honestly about your feelings and concerns. This is an important part of getting better.Some common goals of therapy include:
- Getting healthier
- Making sense of past painful events
- Identifying things that worsen your depression
- Having better relationships with family and friends
- Understanding why something bothers you and creating a plan to deal with it
Heart Disease And Depression
- Depression occurs in 40 to 65 percent of patients who have experienced a heart attack, and in 18 to 20 percent of people who have coronary heart disease, but who have not had a heart attack.
- After a heart attack, patients with clinical depression have a three to four times greater chance of death within the next six months.
- Men and women with depression are at increased risk for coronary artery disease but only men are at greater risk for dying.
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Drug Therapy For Depression
Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression:
Choice of drug Drug Choice and Administration of Antidepressants Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Serotonin modulators Serotonin-< span class=”disableDrug& quot… read more may be guided by past response to a specific antidepressant. Otherwise, SSRIs are often the initial drugs of choice. Although the different SSRIs are equally effective for typical cases, certain properties of the drugs make them more or less appropriate for certain patients .
What Is The Link Between Smoking And Mental Health Conditions
Smoking is much more common among adults with mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, than in the general population.6 About 3 out of every 10 cigarettes smoked by adults in the United States are smoked by persons with mental health conditions.6 Why smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to experience depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions is uncertain. More research is needed to determine this. No matter the cause smoking is not a treatment for depression or anxiety. Getting help for your depression and anxiety and quitting smoking is the best way to feel better.
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What Chronic Conditions Trigger Depression
Although any illness can trigger depressed feelings, the risk of chronic illness and depression gets higher with the severity of the illness and the level of life disruption it causes. The risk of depression is generally 10-25% for women and 5-12% for men. However, people with a chronic illness face a much higher risk — between 25-33%. Risk is especially high in someone who has a history of depression.
Depression caused by chronic disease often makes the condition worse, especially if the illness causes pain and fatigue or it limits a person’s ability to interact with others. Depression can intensify pain, as well as fatigue and sluggishness. The combination of chronic illness and depression might lead you to isolate yourself, which is likely to make the depression even worse.
Research on chronic illnesses and depression indicates that depression rates are high among patients with chronic conditions:
- Chronic pain syndrome: 30%-54% experience depression
What Are The Different Types Of Mood Disorders
These are the most common types of mood disorders:
Major depression. Having less interest in usual activities, feeling sad or hopeless, and other symptoms for at least 2 weeks may indicate depression.
Dysthymia. This is a chronic, low-grade, depressed, or irritable mood that lasts for at least 2 years.
Bipolar disorder. This is a condition in which a person has periods of depression alternating with periods of mania or elevated mood.
Mood disorder related to another health condition. Many medical illnesses can trigger symptoms of depression.
Substance-induced mood disorder. Symptoms of depression that are due to the effects of medicine, drug abuse, alcoholism, exposure to toxins, or other forms of treatment.
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