Life Expectancy And The Risk Of Suicide
Depressed individuals have a shorter life expectancy than those without depression, in part because people who are depressed are at risk of dying of suicide. Up to 60% of people who die of suicide have a mood disorder such as major depression, and the risk is especially high if a person has a marked sense of hopelessness or has both depression and borderline personality disorder. About 2â8% of adults with major depression die by suicide, and about 50% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder. The lifetime risk of suicide associated with a diagnosis of major depression in the US is estimated at 3.4%, which averages two highly disparate figures of almost 7% for men and 1% for women . The estimate is substantially lower than a previously accepted figure of 15%, which had been derived from older studies of people who were hospitalized.
Depressed people have a higher rate of dying from other causes. There is a 1.5- to 2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease, independent of other known risk factors, and is itself linked directly or indirectly to risk factors such as smoking and obesity. People with major depression are less likely to follow medical recommendations for treating and preventing cardiovascular disorders, further increasing their risk of medical complications.Cardiologists may not recognize underlying depression that complicates a cardiovascular problem under their care.
Can Depression Be Prevented
You can help prevent depression by getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet and practicing regular self-care activities such as exercise, meditation and yoga.
If youve had depression before, you may be more likely to experience it again. If you have depression symptoms, get help. Care can help you feel better sooner.
Is Depression Actually A Unique State Of Consciousness
2. Depressive disorders is the term we should use when the depressive reactions turn out to cause additional problems with adjustment and this in turn creates a vicious, maladaptive cycle. This is something I see all the time working with college students. Folks come to college hoping for a wonderful experience, and then they get to college and find they dont fit in and struggle with the academics. This makes them anxious, which in turn makes them less socially confident and less effective in concentrating, planning, and getting their work done. This causes more trouble and in a couple of weeks their emotional system gets exhausted and starts to shutdown. This psychological shutdown in the college setting produces even more dysfunction, and the cycle is completed. But, it is worth noting that, conceptually, there is no need to posit any sort of biological malfunction here.
3. Depressive diseases is the category to describe when the mental behavioral shutdown is far greater than can possibly be explained by basic psychological adjustment problems and when the symptoms are very resistant to changing even when the psychological and social systems are available to support that change. Like many who study depression, I believe we should call depressive diseases melancholic depression and they should be differentiated from neurotic depressive disorders.
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What Is Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder, previously called manic depression, is a mental health condition that involves fluctuations in thinking, mood, and behavior. If you have bipolar disorder, you may experience periods of depression or mania.
There are different types of bipolar disorder, and it affects everyone differently. The main types are bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder.
Bipolar I involves depression and mania, an extremely high mood. Bipolar II is more likely to involve depression and hypomania. Hypomania is similar to mania but less extreme.
For some people, depression is the dominant mood. Some people find they often fluctuate between high and low moods or have long periods when their moods are stable.
For a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, a person will experience mania at some point. People who receive a diagnosis of bipolar II will have at least one episode of hypomania.
a combination of factors.
Life Events And Depression
Research suggests that continuing difficulties, such as long-term unemployment, living in an abusive or uncaring relationship, long-term isolation or loneliness or prolonged exposure to stress at work can increase the risk of depression.
Significant adverse life events, such as losing a job, going through a separation or divorce, or being diagnosed with a serious illness, may also trigger depression, particularly among people who are already at risk because of genetic, developmental or other personal factors.
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Ongoing Mood Cognitive Changes May Require Professional Help
Depression is not only hard to endure, it is also a risk factor for heart disease and dementia. “Depressive symptoms can occur in adults for many reasons. If you are experiencing mood or cognitive changes that last for more than a few weeks, it’s a good idea to bring this up with your doctor or consult a mental health specialist to help sort out possible causes,” says Dr. Nancy Donovan, an instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School.The four most common types of depression are major depression, persistent depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
Major depression. The classic depression type, major depression is a state where a dark mood is all-consuming and one loses interest in activities, even ones that are usually pleasurable. Symptoms of this type of depression include trouble sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy, and feeling worthless. Thoughts of death or suicide may occur. It is usually treated with psychotherapy and medication. For some people with severe depression that isn’t alleviated with psychotherapy or antidepressant medications, electroconvulsive therapy may be effective.
Depressive Episodes With Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a different type of mood disorder that is characterized by a cycle of depressive episodes and manic episodes. Manic episodes are essentially the opposite of depression, during which a person feels euphoric, energized, and sleeps little and acts recklessly. The depressive episodes that precede or follow manic episodes can feel a lot like an episode of major depression.
Certain symptoms are more common in episodes of bipolar depression than major depression. Someone going through bipolar depression is more likely to feel irritable and guilty, to be restless and agitated, and to have unpredictable mood swings. Bipolar depression is also more likely to cause psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. Another important difference is that antidepressants may not help treat someone with bipolar disorder. In fact, these drugs may make periods of mania more likely. Instead, bipolar disorder is more often treated with mood stabilizing drugs.
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Mania Distinguishes Manic Depression From Depression
Mania is the distinguishing symptom of bipolar disorder and what differentiates it from clinical depression. A person with bipolar disorder has experienced one or more manic episodes . Whats a manic episode?
- Feeling overly happy, excited or confident
- Feeling extremely irritable, aggressive and wired
- Having uncontrollable racing thoughts or speech
- Thinking of yourself as overly important, gifted or special
- Making poor judgments, such as with money, relationships or gambling
- Engaging in risky behavior or taking more risks than you ordinarily would
A person with is experiencing the lesser form of mania hypomania may only experience a few of these symptoms, or their symptoms are far less severe and life-impairing. A person with clinical depression experiences none of these symptoms.
Depression isnt the only disorder that is confused with bipolar disorder. Especially in children and teens, sometimes other disorders such as attention deficit disorder may be misdiagnosed, when the teen may instead be suffering from a form of bipolar disorder. Thats because children and teens with bipolar disorder may display hyperactive behavior a common symptom of ADHD. Teens with bipolar disorder are especially more likely to engage in antisocial or risky behaviors, such as those involving sex, alcohol, or drugs.
Last medically reviewed on May 17, 2016
The Symptoms Of A Major Depressive Episode
The diagnostic criteria for major depression include nine possible symptoms. To be diagnosed, a person must experience at least five of these symptoms and significant impairment as a result of those symptoms. The symptoms must last for at least two weeks. This is a depressive episode. The nine possible symptoms of major depressive episodes are:
- Depressed mood. A feeling of depression, sadness, and hopelessness that is intense and persistent. This may seem more like irritability in children, teens, and men.
- Loss of interest. A significant loss of interest or pleasure in doing normal activities, including daily activities like chores but also hobbies, work, or school.
- Weight changes. Significant loss of weight or weight gain that is not intentional but is triggered by overeating or loss of appetite.
- Sleep changes. Either excessive sleep or insomnia and difficulty sleeping.
- Agitation or retardation. Agitated and restless expression or slowed down affect that is notable to anyone observing.
- Fatigue. Fatigue and loss of energy that is more than normal and cant be explained simply by lack of sleep or low quality sleep.
- Excessive guilt. Feelings of deep guilt and shame, a feeling of being worthless.
- Impaired thinking. Difficulty concentrating, making decisions, and focusing on anything, even just watching television.
- Suicidal thoughts. Thoughts of death, suicide, and suicidal planning or suicidal attempts.
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Track Triggers And Symptoms
Keeping track of moods and symptoms might help a person understand what triggers a depressive episode. Spotting the signs of depression early on may help them avoid a full-blown depressive episode.
Use a diary to log important events, changes to daily routines, and moods. Rate moods on a scale of 1 to 10 to help identify which events or activities cause specific responses. See a doctor if symptoms persist for 14 days or more.
What Risks And Complications Can Depression Cause
Having depression can cause other problems. It can affect your mental health as well as your physical health, and it may affect other areas of your life too. For example, depression may cause:
- disturbed sleep,
- difficulties with work and your hobbies,
- difficulties keeping contact with friends and families, or
- suicidal thoughts or thoughts of self-harming.
Some people might also drink more alcohol to try and relieve depression. However, as we said in the previous section above, this can actually make depression worse.
If you have any of these problems, speak to your GP.
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Breathe Deeply And Relax The Muscles
Deep breathing techniques are an effective way to calm anxiety and soothe the bodys stress response. Slowly inhaling and exhaling has physical and psychological benefits, especially when done on a daily basis.
Anyone can practice deep breathing, whether in the car, at work, or in the grocery store. Plenty of smartphone apps offer guided deep breathing activities, and many are free to download.
Progressive muscle relaxation is another helpful tool for those experiencing depression and anxiety. It involves tensing and relaxing the muscles in the body to reduce stress. Again, many smartphone apps offer guided progressive muscle relaxation exercises.
We have reviewed some meditation apps that can help with depression and anxiety.
What Is Manic Depressive Psychosis
Manic depressive psychosis is a serious psychiatric illness characterized by pronounced mood swings and the presence of delusions and hallucinations. Individuals with this presentation of manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, often have difficulty with everyday functioning, such as maintaining relationships and a job, due to the pronounced nature of their psychosis, which blurs their perception of reality. Treatment for this potentially debilitating condition often necessitates hospitalization and the administration of medications to stabilize mood and long-term treatment, including psychotherapy.
Though there is no known, single cause for the development of manic depression, it has been asserted that several factors may contribute to its gradual development or acute onset. Some studies have suggested that bipolar individuals may possess a genetic predisposition for the disorder due to the presence of biological variance or chemical imbalance. Manic depression presentation does appear to be more prominent in individuals with a familial history of the disorder. Other factors that may trigger disease onset may include environmental factors, chemical dependency and abuse, and trauma.
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Most Depressed States 2022
Major depressive disorder, or depression, is a mental health disorder that negatively impacts how a person thinks, feels, and acts. Depression can lead to a variety of mental, emotional, and physical problems and decrease a persons ability to function or perform every day activities at home or work. Depression is a common disorder.
Symptoms of major depressive disorder include: a depressed mood or feelings of sadness loss of interest in activities once enjoyed suicidal thoughts sleeping too much or trouble sleeping feeling worthless or guilty social withdrawal significant changes in appetite signifiant changes in weight slowed movements and speech difficulty concentrating or thinking and increasingly engaging in purposeless, repetitive tasks like pacing.
Depression can affect anyone, especially those with risk factors. Risk factors include: genetics biochemistry personality and environmental factors . Although depression is common, it is fortunately one of the most treatable mental disorders. About 80-90% of depression patients eventually respond well to treatment. Treatment options for depression typically include medication, psychotherapy , and/or electroconvulsive therapy.
What Illnesses Happen With Depression
Itâs common for people to have other medical or mental health problems along with depression, such as anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, phobias, substance use disorders, and eating disorders. If you or a loved one has symptoms of depression or another mental illness, talk to your doctor. Treatments can help.
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What Does Depression Look Like
Well raise your question with a few Qs of our own: Are you female? Are you a teen? Depression can also affect different ages and genders in unique ways:
Women are more likely to ruminate . This can look like negative self-talk, sudden crying spells, feelings of guilt, or blaming oneself. Women are also more likely to have depression at the same time as an anxiety disorder, such as panic disorder, eating disorder, or obsessive-compulsive behavior.
Men with depression are more likely to show signs of irritability, anger, apathy, escapist behavior , or reckless behavior .
Younger people can struggle with depression and MDD . Children and teens may sometimes exhibit oversensitivity, social withdrawal, poor school performance, frequent physical complaints , or feelings of incompetence and despair .
Older adults and the elderly are often misdiagnosed or undertreated for depression because their symptoms can be mistaken for other disorders , or they may assume their feelings are just an inevitable part of aging. For many, sadness isnt the biggest indicator of depression instead, physical complaints are often the predominant symptom. Sleep trouble, low motivation, neglect of personal care or hygiene, and fixation on death are other signs of depression in older adults.
Signs And Symptoms Of Depression
While we usually think of depression as feeling sad or down for a long period of time, the symptoms of depression can vary. Symptoms include:
- Constantly feeling sad, empty, or hopeless
- Changes in appetite that are unrelated to diet goals, such as eating too little or too much
- Changes in sleeping patterns that can range from insomnia to sleeping too much
- Feeling fatigue or a lack of energy
- Losing interest or losing pleasure in your usual hobbies
- Feeling restless, irritable or frustrated, even over small issues
- Having trouble concentrating or remembering things
- Feeling guilty, worthless, or like you are not enough
- Frequently having thoughts of death or suicide. These can range from expressing thoughts like, I wish I were dead, to making plans about how you would end your life.
Depression can also have physical symptoms, like unexplained frequent headaches, stomach aches, or back aches. There are many medical issues with symptoms that are similar to the symptoms of depression, including chronic pain, migraines, and thyroid disorders. If you are experiencing these symptoms for an extended period of time with no relief, consulting a physician can help you determine whether you are experiencing a physical or mental health issue.
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms and dont know how to get started treating them, you can text START to 741741 or call 1-800-273-TALK for a free and confidential conversation at any time.
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Causes Of A Depressive Episode
The causes of depressive episodes are complex and varied, involving social, psychological and biological factors. Depression may occur as an isolated episode or as part of a chronic depressive condition. While the exact causes are not yet fully understood, the following may increase a personÃ¢â¬â¢s likelihood of experiencing a depressive episode:
- History of depressive episodes
People who have recently had a baby may experience postpartum depression.
Sometimes, there is no obvious cause for the occurence of a depressive episode.
Some health conditions, such as hypothyroidism, can cause symptoms of depression. While uncommon, adverse reactions to certain medications can also cause depressed mood. However, treating these underlying causes and disorders should alleviate the symptoms.
Who Is At High Risk For Depression
Those most at risk for developing depression include women, the elderly, those with a personal or family history of depression, chronic stressors, those with other concurrent mental and physical health conditions, low socioeconomic status, and those taking medications that may cause depression, like birth control or some anxiety medications.
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