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What Is Depression Classified As

General Signs And Symptoms

5 Signs of Depression that You Should Never Ignore.

Not everyone with depression will experience the same symptoms. Symptoms can vary in severity, how often they happen, and how long they last.

If you experience some of the following signs and of depression nearly every day for at least 2 weeks, you may be living with depression:

  • feeling sad, anxious, or empty
  • feeling hopeless, worthless, and pessimistic

The symptoms of depression can be experienced differently among males, females, teens, and children.

Males may experience symptoms related to their:

  • mood, such as anger, aggressiveness, irritability, anxiousness, or restlessness
  • emotional well-being, such as feeling empty, sad, or hopeless
  • behavior, such as loss of interest, no longer finding pleasure in favorite activities, feeling tired easily, thoughts of suicide, drinking excessively, using drugs, or engaging in high-risk activities
  • sexual interest, such as reduced sexual desire or lack of sexual performance
  • cognitive abilities, such as inability to concentrate, difficulty completing tasks, or delayed responses during conversations
  • sleep patterns, such as insomnia, restless sleep, excessive sleepiness, or not sleeping through the night
  • physical well-being, such as fatigue, pains, headache, or digestive problems

Females may experience symptoms related to their:

Children may experience

Common causes include:

You may successfully manage symptoms with one form of treatment, or you may find that a combination of treatments works best.

How Is Major Depression Diagnosed

Because depression has shown to often coexist with other psychiatric disorders, such as substance abuse or anxiety disorders, seeking early diagnosis and treatment is crucial to the recovery of your child.

A child psychiatrist or other mental health professional usually diagnoses major depression following a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. An evaluation of the child’s family, when possible, in addition to information provided by teachers and care providers may also be helpful in making a diagnosis.

Depressive Phase Of Bipolar Disorder

Clinical depression can also be a feature of another mental health condition called bipolar disorder. People with bipolar disorder tend to alternate between periods of depression and periods of greatly elevated mood called mania.

In the depressive phase, symptoms can be very similar major depression. During the manic phase, symptoms at the opposite end of the spectrum are more likely, such as:

  • Increased energy

Other forms of depression are classified a bit differently, often because they occur in specific situations or require different treatment approaches.

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Example Of A Depression

The Great Depression lasted roughly a decade and is widely considered to be the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world. It began shortly after the Oct. 24, 1929, U.S. stock market crash known as Black Thursday. After years of reckless investing and speculation the stock market bubble burst and a huge sell-off began, with a record 12.9 million .

The United States was already in a recession, and the following Tuesday, on Oct. 29, 1929, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 12% in another mass sell-off, triggering the start of the Great Depression.

Although the Great Depression began in the United States, the economic impact was felt worldwide for more than a decade. The Great Depression was characterized by a drop in consumer spending and investment, and by catastrophic unemployment, poverty, hunger, and political unrest. In the U.S., unemployment climbed to nearly 25% in 1933, remaining in the double-digits until 1941, when it finally receded to 9.66%.

During the Great Depression, unemployment rose to 24.9%, wages slid 42%, real estate prices declined 25%, total U.S. economic output fell by 30%, and many investors’ portfolios became completely worthless when stock prices dropped to 10% of their previous highs.

Who Is Affected By Major Depression

What Is The Treatment For Depression?

The National Institute of Mental Health, part of the National Institutes of Health, reports the following:

  • Research indicates that depression onset is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades.

  • Early-onset depression often persists, recurs, and continues into adulthood. Depression in youth may also predict more severe illness in adulthood.

  • There is an increased incidence of depression in children whose parents experience depression.

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How Are Mood Disorders Treated

Mood disorders can often be treated with success. Treatment may include:

  • Antidepressant and mood stabilizing medicinesespecially when combined with psychotherapy have shown to work very well in the treatment of depression

  • Psychotherapymost often cognitive-behavioral and/or interpersonal therapy. This therapy is focused on changing the persons distorted views of himself or herself and the environment around him or her. It also helps to improve interpersonal relationship skills, and identifying stressors in the environment and how to avoid them

  • Other therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial stimulation

Families play a vital supportive role in any treatment process.

When correctly diagnosed and treated, people with mood disorders can live, stable, productive, healthy lives.

Beyond Treatment: Things You Can Do

Once you begin treatment, you should gradually start to feel better. Here are other tips that may help you or a loved one during treatment for depression:

  • Try to get some physical activity. Just 30 minutes a day of walking can boost mood.
  • Try to maintain a regular bedtime and wake-up time.
  • Eat regular, healthy meals.
  • Do what you can as you can. Decide what must get done and what can wait.
  • Try to connect with other people, and talk with people you trust about how you are feeling.
  • Postpone important decisions, such as getting married or divorced, or changing jobs until you feel better.
  • Avoid using alcohol, nicotine, or drugs, including medications not prescribed for you.

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What Can I Do If I Have Depression

If you have symptoms of depression, see your healthcare provider. They can give you an accurate diagnosis, refer you to a specialist or suggest treatment options.

If you or someone you know is thinking of hurting themselves or taking their own life:

  • Go to the emergency department of your hospital.
  • Contact a healthcare provider.

Characteristics And Causes Of Depression

What Is Bipolar Disorder?

Depression is probably the most common psychiatric complaint and has been described by physicians since before the time of ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, who called it melancholia. The course of the disorder is extremely variable from person to person it may be mild or severe, acute or chronic. Untreated, depression may last an average of four months or longer. Depression is twice as prevalent in women than in men. The typical age of onset is in the 20s, but it may occur at any age.

Depression can have many causes. Unfavourable life events can increase a persons vulnerability to depression or trigger a depressive episode. Negative thoughts about oneself and the world are also important in producing and maintaining depressive symptoms. However, both psychosocial and biochemical mechanisms seem to be important causes the chief biochemical cause appears to be the defective regulation of the release of one or more naturally occurring neurotransmitters in the brain, particularly norepinephrine and serotonin. Reduced quantities or reduced activity of these chemicals in the brain is thought to cause the depressed mood in some sufferers.

Research suggests that depression is also linked to physical activity, whereby physical activity may lower a persons risk of developing depression. Individuals who exercise typically report better mental health and are less likely to be depressed, compared with individuals who do not exercise.

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Does Depression Change Your Personality

Research has turned up mixed results about whether or not depression can actually change a persons personality.

However, according to of 10 studies, depressive symptoms may be associated with changes in several specific aspects of personality including extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness which could be temporary or persistent.

Signs And Symptoms Of Depression

While we usually think of depression as feeling sad or down for a long period of time, the symptoms of depression can vary. Symptoms include:

  • Constantly feeling sad, empty, or hopeless
  • Changes in appetite that are unrelated to diet goals, such as eating too little or too much
  • Changes in sleeping patterns that can range from insomnia to sleeping too much
  • Feeling fatigue or a lack of energy
  • Losing interest or losing pleasure in your usual hobbies
  • Feeling restless, irritable or frustrated, even over small issues
  • Having trouble concentrating or remembering things
  • Feeling guilty, worthless, or like you are not enough
  • Frequently having thoughts of death or suicide. These can range from expressing thoughts like, I wish I were dead, to making plans about how you would end your life.

Depression can also have physical symptoms, like unexplained frequent headaches, stomach aches, or back aches. There are many medical issues with symptoms that are similar to the symptoms of depression, including chronic pain, migraines, and thyroid disorders. If you are experiencing these symptoms for an extended period of time with no relief, consulting a physician can help you determine whether you are experiencing a physical or mental health issue.

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms and dont know how to get started treating them, you can text START to 741741 or call 1-800-273-TALK for a free and confidential conversation at any time.

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Risk Factors For Depression

Depression is caused by a combination of factors, including but not limited to::

  • Biology: How our brains produce and absorb chemicals like serotonin and dopamine can have effects on our mood and how well we can regulate our emotions.
  • Genetics: Depression may have genetic links. People who have parents or siblings with symptoms of depression are at higher risk for depression.
  • Perceived social isolation and family rejection: People who experience rejection or isolation from friends, family, and wider communities are at a higher risk for depression. For example, LGBTQ youth are more likely to experience social and familial rejection, and are at increased risk of harassment and violence as they grow up. This added stress can have negative outcomes regarding physical, mental, and emotional health. It is important to note, though, that it can sometimes be hard to tell when we already feel depressed if someone is intending to reject us or we feel rejected even if that is not their intention.
  • Childhood trauma: Children who grow up in unstable environments or experience traumatic events early in lifesuch as experiencing or witnessing abuse, living with someone with a substance use disorder, or having divorced parentsare more likely to experience mental health issues, including depression.

Alternative And Complementary Treatment

Depression in primary care: part 2management

You may choose to explore complementary or alternative therapies for depression. One of the most common is an herbal supplement called St. Johns wort.

The FDA has not officially approved St. Johns wort to treat depression, but it is often suggested by alternative health practitioners. Research has indicated that St. Johns wort may be beneficial for some people who have symptoms of depression.

The supplement comes in various doses and preparations and can be purchased over-the-counter and at most health food stores. There is no standard dose and you may want to work with a practitioner as you undertake some trial and error to determine the dose that feels right for you.

Similar to how prescription medications affect neurotransmitter levels, St. Johns wort may influence the levels of a specific neurotransmitter called serotonin in the brain. When people have too little serotonin, they can feel depressed. Increasing the amount of serotonin can help improve symptoms. However, having too much serotonin can lead to a serious condition called serotonin syndrome.

If you are taking a medication that carries a risk of increasing your serotonin levels too much, your doctor will teach you about the signs of serotonin syndrome to watch for. They will also want you to make sure that you never take more than one medication, herb, or supplement that can raise your serotonin levels at the same time .

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Classification Of Depression In This Guideline And The Depression Guideline Update

The depression classification system adopted for this guideline and the depression guideline update had to meet a number of criteria, notably the use of:

  • a system that reflects the non-categorical, multidimensional nature of depression
  • a system that makes best use of the available evidence on both efficacy and effectiveness
  • a system that could be distilled for practical day-to-day use in healthcare settings without potentially harmful over-simplification or distortion
  • terms that can be easily understood and are not open to misinterpretation by a wide range of healthcare staff and service users
  • a system that would facilitate the generation of clinical recommendations.

These criteria led the GDGs to adopt a classificatory system for depression based on DSMIV criteria. When assessing an individual it is important to assess three dimensions to diagnose a depressive disorder severity , duration, and course as linked, but separate, factors . In addition, there was recognition that a single dimension of severity was insufficient to fully capture its multidimensional nature.

As discussed above, the following depressive symptoms require assessment to determine the presence of major depression. The symptoms need to be experienced to a sufficient degree of severity and persistence to be counted as definitely present. At least one core symptom is required both core symptoms would be expected in moderate and severe major depression.

Take Care Of Yourself

You can also improve symptoms of depression by taking care of yourself. This includes getting plenty of sleep, eating a healthy diet, avoiding negative people, and participating in enjoyable activities.

Sometimes depression doesnt respond to medication. Your healthcare professional may recommend other treatment options if your symptoms dont improve.

These options include electroconvulsive therapy or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat depression and improve your mood.

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Depression Treatment Using Medication

Using medication to treat depression is effective for many people. However, it is important that you understand whats involved with taking medication for your condition. If you are prescribed antidepressant medication, you must take one that is right for you.

Antidepressants are commonly prescribed to treat depression because they balance natural chemicals in the brain that control a persons mood, emotions, and behavior. Many medical professionals believe these medications are safe for use because they work slowly and are generally not addictive or habit-forming.

Still, people with a history of substance abuse should tell their doctor before starting antidepressants or any kind of medication. This is critical for people who are recovering from a substance use disorder. They also should tell their doctor about other medications they are taking as well as other vitamins or supplements.

Antidepressants are grouped by the brain chemicals they are designed to treat, notes. There are five classes of antidepressants available. However, two are among the ones most widely used. Those are:

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

You may recognize antidepressants by their trade name. Some SSRI medications are:

What Is Clinical Depression

VA Secondary Conditions to Depression and How They’re Rated

Depression exists on a continuum of severity, ranging from relatively mild, transient states of low mood to severe, long-term symptoms that have a major impact on a persons quality of life. Depression is often described as being mild, moderate, or severe. When a persons symptoms have reached the chronic end of the spectrum and require professional treatment, it’s typically referred to as clinical depression.

Although depression can take on many forms and may be categorized in several different ways, there are two primary types of clinical depression as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: major depressive disorder and the depressive phase of bipolar disorder.

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Is Depression A Disease

What is depression? Is it a disease? A mental disorder? Biochemical imbalance? A brain dysfunction? A psychological syndrome? An existential or spiritual crisis? Several of my fellow PT bloggers posted on depression recently. I want to discuss depression here as a clinical and forensic psychologist who has been practicing psychotherapy for more than three decades.

For me, the crucial question of whether depression is a disease stems from the somewhat dubious application of the medical model to the theory and practice of psychiatry and psychology. What is the “medical model”? The medical model is the paradigm on which the practice of clinical medicine is founded: Symptoms are seen as manifestations of pathological physiological processes which are diagnosed and then treated with whatever methods available. The purpose of medical treatment is to eliminate, suppress or control the symptoms of disease. To, as much as possible, reduce suffering and prolong life. Physicians have been faithfully adhering to this honorable paradigm and practice since the time of Hippocrates.

What Are The Symptoms Of Depression

Depression can affect your emotions, mind and body. Depression symptoms include:

  • Feeling very sad, hopeless or worried.
  • Not enjoying things that used to give you joy.
  • Being easily irritated or frustrated.
  • Eating too much or too little.
  • Changes in how much you sleep.
  • Having a difficult time concentrating or remembering things.
  • Experiencing physical problems like headache, stomachache or sexual dysfunction.
  • Thinking about hurting or killing yourself.

If you or someone you know has thoughts of hurting themselves, please call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800.273.8255. This national network of local crisis centers provides free, private emotional support to people in suicidal crisis or emotional distress 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

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Drug Therapy For Depression

Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression:

Choice of drug Drug Choice and Administration of Antidepressants Several drug classes and drugs can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Serotonin modulators Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors… read more may be guided by past response to a specific antidepressant. Otherwise, SSRIs are often the initial drugs of choice. Although the different SSRIs are equally effective for typical cases, certain properties of the drugs make them more or less appropriate for certain patients .

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