Link Between Mental Health And Suicide
The link between mental health and substance use disorders and suicide is well-documented.37 It is however true that not all suicides or suicide attempts are attributed to underlying mental health or substance use disorders as shown in the chart, there is not a direct relationship between mental health prevalence and suicide rates.38
We cover suicide statistics more broadly in our full entry on Suicide, however here we attempt to distil the key findings on the links between mental health and substance use and suicide. Although mental health and substance use disorders is within the top-five causes of disease burden globally , accounting for approximately 7 percent of the burden, several authors have highlighted that such figures since they do not include suicide DALYs underestimate the true cost of mental health disorders.39
Providing a more accurate estimate of total mental health burden therefore requires some understanding of the connection between these disorders and suicide.
Meta-analyses of psychological autopsy studies of suicide across high-income countries suggest that up to 90 percent of suicides occur as a result of an underlying mental health or substance use disorder.40
While available data and studies are more scarce across lower-to-middle income countries, evidence across countries including China, Taiwan and India suggest that this proportion is significantly lower elsewhere.41
Depression Rates Around The World
Depression affects about 1 in 15 adults in any given year, and 1 in 6 people will experience depression at some time in their life. An Our World In Data study estimates about 3.4% of the global population has depression. This is about 264 million people worldwide.
According to WHO estimates, the ten countries with the highest prevalence of depression are:
Government Of Canada’s Role
The Government of Canada works to help Canadians maintain and improve their mental health, including coping with depression. Within its jurisdiction, the Government of Canada works to:
- Support research and its dissemination
- Strengthen the capacity of the primary health care, home care and acute care sectors to effectively deliver mental health programs and services
- Raise awareness through social marketing campaigns
- Conduct surveillance on mental health trends in the population.
In 2007, the federal government provided funding to establish and support the Mental Health Commission of Canada to lead the development of a national mental health strategy, create a knowledge exchange centre and reduce the stigma about mental illness.
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What Causes Mood Disorders
Mood disorders have no single cause, but several risk factors interact to produce the clinical symptoms of the various mood disorders. Individuals with depression and bipolar disorder often find a history of these disorders among immediate family members.Footnote 3 ,Footnote 4 Many different genes may act together and in combination with other factors to cause a mood disorder. Research is getting closer to identifying the specific genes that contribute to depression.
Economic Impact Of Depression
- Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide and is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease.
- Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability in the U.S. with major depressive disorder being the most common
- Mental Health is the second leading workplace concern, following only family issues.
- Depression contributes to the estimated $100 billion annual cost of depression for U.S. employers, including $44 billion a year in lost productivity alone.
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Postpartum Depression In New Mothers By Ethnicity/race
The following data displays the percentages of women with symptoms of postpartum depression among various different ethnic groups.
Additionally, postpartum depression doesnt only affect new mothers.
Studies have found that:
- Approximately 10% of new fathers experience symptoms of depression during the postpartum period.
- Half of men who have partners with postpartum depression will go on to develop depression themselves.
Some studies have shown that rates of postpartum depression in adoptive parents can be comparable to rates in biological mothers. The stressors that adoptive parents face are different than those faced by biological parents. Because there is still a societal stigma around adoptive families, the rates of PPD could be higher in adoptive parents, as many suffer in silence with their symptoms.
- One study found that roughly 8% of adoptive parents experienced severe PPD compared to biological mothers in the same study, who experienced PPD at a rate of 16.5%.
Statistics On Rates Of Postpartum Depression
While exact postpartum depression rates are unknown, there are some generally agreed-upon figures about the number of women who experience postpartum depression annually.
In the United States alone:
- Approximately 70% to 80% of women will experience, at a minimum, the baby blues. Many of these women will experience the more severe condition of postpartum depression or a related condition.
- The reported rate of some type of clinical postpartum depression among new mothers is between 10% to 20%.
- One recent study found that 1 in 7 women may experience postpartum depression in the year after giving birth. With approximately 4 million live births occurring each year in the United States, this equates to almost 600,000 postpartum depression diagnoses.
Its important to understand that these numbers only account for live births. Many women who miscarry or have stillbirths experience postpartum depression symptoms as well.
- When including women who have miscarried or have had a stillbirth, around 900,000 women suffer from postpartum depression annually in the US.
Postpartum depression is a global issue as well.
Across the world:
- Postpartum depression affects tens if not hundreds of millions annually if all countries are accounted for.
- One study found that postpartum depression rates in Asian countries could be at 65% or more among new mothers.
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% Of Medical Students Suffer From Anxiety
For its part, 36.8 percent of the participants had high burnout, with high scores in two of its components . No differences were observed between men and women and the percentage of high burnout increased progressively from the first year of the career to the sixth year .
While, in relation to empathy, only one 18.8 percent of participants had high levels of empathy, with women obtaining a higher percentage than men. In addition, the percentages progressively increased year after year, from 14 percent in the first year of Medicine to 26 percent in the sixth year.
With these data, the study determined that depression is significantly related to the anxiety trait and burnout, so that students who showed signs of depression had higher levels of anxiety and burnout but lower levels of empathy. While burnout was significantly associated with both depression and anxiety trait.
The Ama Needs To Declare A National Mental Health Emergency
Local increases were highest in places hardest hit by Covid-19, correlating most strongly with high average daily case rates of the virus and with limited ability to move or travel for residents. But the analysis was limited by the data available, which came mostly from high-income Western countries and excluded lower-income countries whose populations were likely affected in greater numbers.
No estimate is often interpreted as if there is no change, which we dont believe at all, said lead author Damian Santomauro, also of the Queensland Center for Mental Health Research. They estimated changes in countries with limited or no data, but hope to have more accurate numbers in a forthcoming analysis of 2021 data. They are also hoping to identify more contributing factors to the trends, including the economic strain many people were under after losing jobs.
Even before the pandemic, depression and anxiety were widespread, making the top 25 causes of disease burden in 2019 according to the annual Global Burden of Disease Study, to which both Santomauro and Ferrari have contributed. As Covid-19 continues to spread, they predict another increase in depression and anxiety could follow, particularly in countries like India, where the first major Covid-19 surge didnt occur until early in 2021.
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A Stunning Map Of Depression Rates Around The World
The Middle East and North Africa suffer the worlds highest depression rates, according to a new study by researchers at Australias University of Queensland — and its costing people in the region years off their lives.
The study, published this week in the journal PLOS Medicine, used data on the prevalence, incidence and duration of depression to determine the social and public health burden of the disorder around the world. Globally, they found, depression is the second-leading cause of disability, with slightly more than 4 percent of the world’s population diagnosed with it. The map at the top of this page shows how much of the population in each country has received a diagnosis of clinical depression.
Still, the researchers findings have real ramifications for the world — and are often surprising. More than 5 percent of the population suffers from depression in the Middle East, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe and the Caribbean. Meanwhile, depression is reportedly lowest in East Asia, followed by Australia/New Zealand and Southeast Asia. This chart shows how each region of the world is affected by depression the orange line indicates the number of years spent living with clinical depression per every 100,000 people.
The most depressed country is Afghanistan, where more than one in five people suffer from the disorder. The least depressed is Japan, with a diagnosed rate of less than 2.5 percent.
Lockdown Depression Became The New Normal
Not only did the global pandemic have a massive impact on the worlds economy, but it also had a big effect on peoples mental health. While stress, lockdowns, social distancing, and uncertainty of the future can be the main trigger for developing some type of depression for the first time, at the same time, the aforementioned situations can also worsen the symptoms of depression.
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Interpreting Data On Depression
While the numbers listed above are valuable and vital, it is important to keep in mind that the true rates are likely much higher, especially in less developed countries. Depression is much more likely to be diagnosed in highly developed countries, whose more robust health care infrastructures are far better equipped to identify and treat mental illnesses.
Therefore, less developed countries do not necessarily have less depressionrather, their treatment of mental illnesses often takes a back seat to broader concerns such as hunger, disease, and sanitation. In fact, the World Health Organization estimates that 7685% of people suffering from mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries lack access to the necessary treatment. Moreover, even in developed nations, many cases of mental illness go undiagnosed and unreported because the patients are either ashamed of their illness or unaware that it’s a medically treatable condition.
Depression rates are rising around the world, but it’s likely that this rise is due at least in part to a good thing: More patients than ever before are seeking and receiving treatment for mental illness rather than going undiagnosed. In many countries, including the United States, the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is gradually decreasing. This enables a more open discussion of mental illness and makes people more likely to seek help when they need it.
Fact: Young People And Older Adults Struggle With Depression Too
The average age of onset of depression is 32, but teens, seniors, and even children may develop and struggle with depression. The symptoms can vary, though, and children with depression are more likely to experience sadness and irritability, physical aches and pains, and weight loss. Children may also show signs of depression through their behaviors, such as refusing to go to school or being clingy and needy with parents or siblings.
Teens with depression experience many of the same symptoms as adults, but distinguishing them from normal teen angst can be difficult. Some signs that depression is the issue include drug or alcohol use, loss of interest in activities, self-harm, social withdrawal, poor school performance, and being excessively sensitive. In older adults, depression may cause physical pains, memory problems, personality changes, and social isolation.
- As many as one in eight adolescents have major depression.
- One in 33 children will struggle with depression.
- Untreated depression is the greatest risk factor for youth suicide.
- Those at the greatest risk for suicide are young men aged 15 to 24.
- Six million older Americans struggle with depression, but only 10 percent get treated.
- Elderly men are more likely than women to have suicidal thoughts.
- More than half of caretakers of elderly family members have symptoms of major depression.
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Statistics On Ppd Risk Factors
There is no known cause of postpartum depression. Instead, there a number of risk factors that increase your likelihood of developing it.
Here are some statistics regarding specific potential causes and risk factors for postpartum depression.
- Women with a history of depression, anxiety disorders or serious mood disorders are 30% to 35% more likely to develop postpartum depression.
- If a woman has experienced postpartum depression with previous births, she is 10% to 50% more likely to experience it again.
- It is believed that 50% of women who develop postpartum depression began experiencing symptoms during pregnancy. This proves the case for early symptom recognition, awareness and access to treatment.
- While PPD can affect people of all backgrounds, people in poverty or who have poor access to education and health care may run a higher risk.
- Data suggests 25% of people of this demographic will develop postpartum depression.
- One study found that women of low socioeconomic status were 11 times more likely to develop PPD symptoms than women of higher socioeconomic status.
Statistics On Depression Treatment
As awareness of the prevalence of depression increases, more people are seeking treatment. More than half of the 17.3 million American adults who reported having a major depressive episode in 2017 also said they received treatment for their depression. Specific depression treatment statistics include:
- Approximately 67 percent of people who had a major depressive episode said they received treatment
- Around 72 percent of people who had a major depressive episode and a severe impairment said they received treatment
- The percentages of people who had a major depressive episode and received treatment rose from 2016 to 2017 in both genders, most age groups, all races and every employment type
Depression recovery statistics may not offer the clearest picture of how the disorder affects people. Due to the nature of depressive conditions, there is no absolute cure, but ongoing treatment and therapy can mitigate depressive symptoms.
After receiving treatment for depression, people may experience diminished symptoms and improved moods due to effective antidepressant medications or coping mechanisms. However, the symptoms of a depressive disorder can return later in the persons life and require additional treatment if treatment stops.
Understanding how prevalent the condition is and accepting medical assistance will help people manage their depression effectively. Deciding to receive treatment for depression is a significant step toward improved mental health.
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Womens Attitudes Toward Depression:
According to a Mental Health America survey on public attitudes and beliefs about clinical depression:
- More than one-half of women believe it is normal for a woman to be depressed during menopause and that treatment is not necessary.
- More than one-half of women believe depression is a normal part of aging.
- More than one-half believe it is normal for a mother to feel depressed for at least two weeks after giving birth.
- More than one-half of women cited denial as a barrier to treatment while 41% of women surveyed cited embarrassment or shame as barriers to treatment.
- In general, over one-half of the women said they think they know more about depression than men do.
Major Depressive Disorder Statistics
23. It is believed that 75% of people worldwide suffering from a mental disorder receive no treatment in developing countries
As may be expected, up to 1 million people commit suicide on a yearly basis. We can thus conclude that a large bulk of this percentage consists of people suffering from an untreated major depressive disorder.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
24. Adults suffering from a major depressive disorder are 64% more likely to be affected by coronary artery disease
These depression statistics were originally researched and published by the National Institute of Health and showcases the link between depression , and coronary artery disease a physical heart disease. Therefore, this settles that there is a tangible link between a persons mental well-being and physical health.
25. In the United States, during 2017, 2.3 million adolescents between 12 and 17 suffered from severe impairment as a result of depression
These major depressive disorder statistics illustrate just how severe some of the symptoms associated with depression can be, especially for children, adolescents, and young adults, which are the ages when people are generally least impaired and have the most energy. 70.77% of adolescents that went through a major depressive episode had to deal with severe impairment. Later on, we will carry out an analysis of depression based on age, for better understanding.
: National Institute of Mental Health
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Deaths From Mental Health And Substance Use Disorders
The direct death toll from mental health and substance use disorders is typically low. In this entry, the only direct death estimates result from eating disorders, which occur through malnutrition and related health complications. Direct deaths can also result from alcohol and substance use disorders these are covered in our entry on Substance Use.
However, mental health disorders are also attributed to significant number of indirect deaths through suicide and self-harm. Suicide deaths are strongly linked although not always attributed to mental health disorders. We discuss the evidence of this link between mental health and suicide in detail later in this entry.
In high-income countries, meta-analyses suggest that up to 90 percent of suicide deaths result from underlying mental and substance use disorders. However, in middle to lower-income countries there is evidence that this figure is notably lower. A study by Ferrari et al. attempted to determine the share disease burden from suicide which could be attributed to mental health or substance use disorders.1
As a result, direct attribution of suicide deaths to mental health disorders is difficult. Nonetheless, its estimated that a large share of suicide deaths link back to mental health. Studies suggest that for an individual with depression the risk of suicide is around 20 times higher than an individual without.