Cognitive Therapy In Primary Care
Family physicians usually are the first to diagnose and treat patients with depression. They should inform patients that psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are valid options, and that cognitive therapy, and therefore CBT, is the most studied psychotherapy. If the patient and physician initially elect to use pharmacotherapy, and the patient does not respond adequately, the physician should again suggest adding psychotherapy or CBT. CBT should be strongly considered as initial therapy for patients with severe or chronic depression or for adolescents. If the patient declines referral, or if the family physician provides CBT, longer appointments could be scheduled. Resources are available for the physician and patient , and further physician training should be considered.
How The Behavioral And Cognitive Components Work
CBT can be divided into its behavioral and cognitive components.
- Cognitive component. With the support of your therapist, you will learn to identify the negative distorted thinking that creates negative emotions. You will both then question the validity of these emotions, and you will explore new and alternative balanced thoughts.
You uncover your core negative beliefs and discuss how they have affected you. This is a very important part of treatment, as negative thoughts create a lack of energy, focus, and motivation. CBT re-educates you to be more realistic in terms of your thinking, which then helps alleviate your depression.
Youll also be given the chance to explore where your negative core beliefs stem from. Youll be urged to explore whether there is actually any real evidence for or against these.
- Behavioral component. Throughout the behavioral aspect of treatment, your therapist will guide you to measure and assess how your daily routine and activities have an impact on your mood. Your therapist encourages you to explore how your behaviors can help alleviate and improve your depression symptoms.
Your therapist helps you to develop a plan of positive action based on your behaviors, which includes a list of activities in order from easy to more difficult to achieve. As you master the activities from easier to harder, youll begin to experience feelings of achievement, and your depression lessens.
Complementary And Alternative Treatments
Third-wave cognitive and behavioral therapies, which include extended behavioral activation, acceptance and committment therapy, and competitive memory training may be promising but have a very small evidence base.
More studies are needed, but Internet and other computerized treatments hold promise as evidence-based treatments of depression.
Children and Adolescents: N/A
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How Does Cbt Differ From Other Treatments For Depression
The method and general focus of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a little different from many other, more traditional depression treatments. For instance, CBT:
- Works on changing your thought patterns and on modifying behaviors in the immediate present.
- Specifically addresses your problem thinking and undesirable behaviors.
- Is goal-oriented. Clear goals are set out for each session as well as for the long-term.
- Is educational. You monitor your own feelings and thoughts, and then you commit these to paper. The therapist will also teach you important coping skills, such as problem-solving.
- Allows you to play an active part in your learning and recovery. You will also complete homework assignments that are reviewed at the beginning of the next session.
- Employs multiple strategies, including role-playing, behavioral experiments, and guided discovery.
- Is time limited.
The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Anger has been known to play an important role in depression. Depression to several psychoanalytic theorists and clinicians have come to be understood as conflicts and difficulties in coping. Anger is the central role in the onset of persistent depression. , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in anger management is the regulation of anger and then with the acquisition of skills would involve more adaptive alternatives to provocation. When there is stress in
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Are There Any Risks
There is little long-term emotional risk associated with CBT. But exploring painful feelings and experiences can be stressful. Treatment may involve facing situations youd otherwise avoid.
For instance, you may be asked to spend time in public places if you have a fear of crowds. Alternately, you may need to confront difficult sources of trauma, like the death of a loved one.
These scenarios can provide opportunities to practice altered responses to stressful or adverse situations. The eventual goal of therapy is to teach you how to deal with anxiety and stress in a safe and constructive manner.
Will Cbt Help My Depression
CBT has been found to be effective in treating those with mild to moderate depression. It has also been proven effective when combined with other treatment options, like antidepressants or other medications.
Remember that change is often gradual, requiring a time commitment and the willingness to be open to the experience.
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Strengths And Limitations Of This Study
This protocol will provide new evidence concerning the administration of cognitive behavioural therapy for major depression as an augmentation strategy for patients who have failed to respond to pharmacotherapy in psychiatric care settings.
Central randomisation and blinded assessment will be used.
The study cannot examine the efficacy of CBT itself because there no attention-placebo control group.
The small number of study sites may affect generalisability.
Nature Of Cognitive Therapy
Cognitive therapy is a treatment process that helps patients correct false self-beliefs that lead to certain moods and behaviors. The fundamental principle behind cognitive therapy is that a thought precedes a mood, and that both are interrelated with a persons environment, physical reaction, and subsequent behavior.6 Therefore, changing a thought that arises in a given situation will change mood, behavior, and physical reaction. Although it is unclear who benefits most from cognitive therapy, motivated patients who have an internal locus of control and the capacity for introspection likely would benefit most.
During cognitive therapy, the therapist helps the patient work through several steps. First, the patient accepts that some of his or her perceptions and interpretations of reality may be false and that these interpretations lead to negative thoughts.5 Next, the patient learns to recognize the negative thoughts and discovers alternative thoughts that reflect reality more closely.5 The patient then decides internally whether the evidence supports the negative thought or the alternative thought. Ideally, the patient will recognize distorted thinking and reframe the situation.6 As cognitive therapy progresses, it focuses more on reframing deeply held or core beliefs about self and the world.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Depression
If you are worried you might be depressed, ask yourself whether you identify with any of the following symptoms:
- Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness
- Loss of interests in things you used to enjoy
- Unnatural tiredness
- Drinking more alcohol than usual
- Using illegal or prescription drugs to excess
- Self-loathing feelings of worthlessness and guilt
- Unexplained aches and pains including stomach pains, sore muscles, back pain and headaches
If you answered yes to one or more of these, you might be depressed, and cognitive behavioral therapy might be able to help.
Sorck Model Of Behavioral Analysis
The first step of behavioral analysis is to describe in detail the problematic behavior or response with regard to its topography, intensity and duration . Topography/intensity refers to the cognitive, emotional, physiological and motor components of the symptoms . Frequency is to determine whether an actually proper behavior occurs too rarely or too frequently , if the behavior is dysfunctional , or if there is a complete lack of the particular behavior.
In the next step, the conditions preceding the disturbed behavior – the so-called triggering situations – and the subsequent conditions – the so-called consequences – are determined. Kanfer and Saslow expanded the SRCK models proposed by Lindsley by adding the variable “O” . This includes relatively permanent and short-term functional disorders . According to Lindsley, every stimulus or situation is followed by a response , correspondingly resulting in behavior-supporting or behavior-penalizing consequence and a contingency as long as the consequences follow the behavior. The above described SORCK model has been a subject of further development within the scope of the diagnostic process and has been complemented by the determination of dysfunctional thoughts controlling the behavior.
This model differentiates four types of consequences :
During problem analysis the therapist may collect sufficient information to formulate the intended objective together with the patient.
What Makes A Psychosocial Intervention Effective
Effective psychosocial interventions tend to share certain characteristics by providing:
a clear underlying model/structure/plan for the treatment being offered
a focus on current problems of relevance to the patient
delivery that is based on an effective relationship with the practitioner.
These are factors shared by the psychotherapies identified as having a strong evidence base, including CBT, problem-solving, interpersonal psychotherapy, group therapy, and marital and family interventions.
Evidence For The Effectiveness Of Cbt In Depression
A recent key document in this area is the Department of Health’s review Treatment Choice in Psychological Therapies and Counselling . These guidelines summarise evidence-based information that can aid decisions about which psychological therapies are most appropriate for which patients. This is the most comprehensive review and appraisal of psychological treatments since the review by Reference Roth and FonagyRoth & Fonagy .
The review group concentrated on the following common mental health disorders: depression, including suicidal behaviour anxiety, panic disorder, social anxiety, phobias post-traumatic disorders, eating disorders obsessivecompulsive disorder personality disorders, including repetitive self-harm chronic pain, chronic fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders and gynaecological presentations .
All the established psychotherapeutic modalities were included in the review: cognitive and behavioural treatments psychoanalytic therapies systemic therapy eclectic therapies integrative therapy other psychotherapies .
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Cognitive Behavior Therapy And Other Treaments Essay
BEHAVIOUR THERAPY AND OTHER TREAMENTSDepression is a syndrome and disorder where the patient will experience episode of major sadness, lack of interest and motivation pessimism, and decreased self-esteem. It is affecting up to 16% of people in Australia annualy, and become one of the leading cause of suicide in younger adult. This disease is usually treated by Antidepressant Medication or by non-drug treatment, such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy . The aim of this review article is to
Cognitive Therapy In Adolescents
Although most studies have evaluated adult populations, few have evaluated the effect of CBT in adolescents. A meta-analysis22 of six studies with 191 patients showed that CBT was significantly more effective than placebo or inactive interventions in managing adolescent depressive disorder . Although these findings were demonstrated only in mild to moderate depression, the results warrant further study.
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How Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treat Depression
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of psychological counseling approach that treats a variety of different psychological and psychiatric disorders. It employs both cognitive strategies that can help people change their thought patterns and behavioral strategies that can help people change behaviors that may be unhelpful or harmful.
CBT is founded on several principles, including the following:
- Psychological problems are based, in part, on disordered thinking.
- Psychological problems are based, in part, on learned patterns of behavior that are not helpful.
- People can learn better ways to cope with psychological problems.
Unlike traditional talk-based psychotherapy that may involve years of counseling, CBT is usually designed for short-term treatment over the course of 12-16 sessions, depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. CBT also emphasizes a collaborative and cooperative relationship between patient and therapist, where both set an agenda and determine goals for therapy, and the therapist provides regular feedback to the patient.
Homework assignments are also an important part of CBT and usually include recording thoughts, scheduling specific activities, and challenging automatic negative thoughts when they occur.
Cognitive Methods To Change Depressive Thinking Patterns
Cognitive methods teach you to challenge and rationalize negative thoughts, eventually reducing their power over you. Techniques like cognitive restructuring can help you understand your thought patterns, the emotion or trigger behind them, and the actual reality of the situation. Then, the therapist could present a more rational or realistic perspective to help reduce cognitive distortions.
A common cognitive distortion among those with depression is mind reading, where you believe you know what others are thinking. By challenging this and other depressive thoughts, you can build a healthier pattern of thinking and self-talk.2,3
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Cognitive Mental Disorder Perspective
In abnormal psychology, cognitive disorders are mental disorders that develop on the basis of cognitive mental disorder perspective. The cognitive mental disorder perspective is the theory that psychological disorders originate from an interruption, whether short or long, in our basic cognitive functions, i.e. memory processing, perception, problem solving and language. This perspective takes opposition to the psychodynamic mental disorder perspective, behavioral mental disorder perspective, sociocultural mental disorder perspective, interpersonal mental disorder perspective and neurological/biological mental disorder perspective. One pioneer of cognitive disorder perspective is Albert Ellis. In 1962, Ellis proposed that humans develop irrational beliefs/goals about the world and therefore, create disorders in cognitive abilities. Another pioneer of the cognitive disorder perspective is Aaron Beck. In 1967, Beck designed what is known as the “cognitive model” for emotional disorders, mainly depression. His model showed that a blending of negative cognitive functions about the self, the world, and possible selves lead to cognitive mental disorders.
Study Design And Setting
The current study is a 16-week assessor-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial of two parallel groups with 12-month follow-up at an outpatient clinic as part of usual depression care . Random allocation to treatment will be done at the individual level.
Level and change in health-related quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D and SF-36.
Work performance outcomes
Self-reported sick leave hours , reduction in job performance , and the actual hours worked in the past 4weeks as measured by the HPQ.
Quality of life and depression severity will be used for estimating quality adjusted life years for cost-utility analyses.
GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale has been the gold standard assessment for observer-rated depression symptomatology for more than 50years. The GRID-HAMD was developed to set standards for scoring and administering the original HAMD. Symptom severity is usually assessed for the 7days before assessment. The GRID-HAMD has three components: the GRID scoring system based upon assessment of symptom intensity and symptom frequency, manual of scoring conventions, and a semi-structured interview guide based on the SIGH-D. The inter-rater reliability of the Japanese version of the GRID-HAMD total score is excellent.
Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition
36-Item Short-Form Health Survey
WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire
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Who Is A Candidate For Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- those who have mild-to-moderate major depressive disorder
- women who are pregnant, trying to become pregnant, or are currently breastfeeding
- and any patient who wishes to employ cognitive behavioral therapies.
In patients who have more chronic, severe, or complex cases of depression, the American Psychiatric Association recommends combining CBT with medications .
Medications Used For Treating Major Depressive Disorder
Antidepressant medications are most frequently used to treat major depressive disorder. Older generations of antidepressants, including tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors can be used as major depressive disorder medications. These medications should be used as a last resort if other medications have not proven to be effective.
A practitioner may need to experiment with different classes of medications and various dosages to find the right combination with the lowest side effect profile. Antidepressants take four to six weeks to take full effect and often sleep, attentiveness and appetite improve before mood does. If needed, other psychotropic medications can be added to antidepressant medications to enhance the effectiveness, whether it is two types of antidepressants, an antidepressant and a mood stabilizer or antidepressants and antipsychotic medications.
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Is The Teaching Effective
The aim in Glasgow is to train over 200 staff by June 2003. During evaluation, the trainers examine subjective and objective knowledge, skills and team functioning, together with adherence to the training content of the course and measures of its acceptability and content. Analysis of the results for the first 78 attendees confirms statistically and clinically significant increases in overall subjective and objective knowledge and skills, with high ratings for the acceptability and content of training .
The challenge of achieving sustainable and relevant change should not be underestimated. Previous research has confirmed the great difficulties both of bringing about change in staff knowledge, attitudes and skills, and of maintaining change and confirming its effect on patient care . The next stage of the SPIRIT project includes an analysis of the impact of change on staff care delivery and on patient outcomes.
What Is Major Depressive Disorder
Major depressive disorder, or simply depression, is a common, treatable, mental health problem. You may feel sad and lose interest in activities you once enjoyed. It can lead to problems in your work and home life as well as other emotional and even physical problems. It could also cause:
- Pacing, handwringing, and other restless activities
- Slowed speech and movements that others notice
- Difficulty focusing on tasks or making decisions
- Changes in appetite
- Remember or think of information
- Process or “make sense of” new information quickly
- Respond to new information in an appropriate way
If you lose some of these abilities, your quality of life may not be as good as it once was. You may not be able to function at work. You also might not respond as well to your treatment and could face a higher risk of another bout with depression.
Some evidence suggests that your thinking skills, once they start to decline from depression, could continue to worsen, even at times when you don’t feel especially depressed.
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